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1 842 . 

a it id a 2 * 

Abeel, Rev. D., at Kulangsu. . . 505 

Adams, J. Quincy’s letter 274 

Admiral W u visits Kearny 333 

Alphabet of the Mantchous 430 

Amaurosis, cases of 661 

American ships Panama and Kos- 
ciusko 578 

Amherst’s, lord, embassy 83 

Amherst’s return from Peking. . 85 

Amherst, ship sails for the coast 7 
Amoy, the capture of the city. . . 148 

Amoy, the defenses of 294 

Amoy, notice of city of 504 

A'nhwui province, topography of. 307 
Ann, brig, particulars concerning 682 

Archives of the Mantchous 433 

Argyle’s boat, the loss of the. ... 81 

Argyle, the loss of reported to the 

government 123 

Arms of the Mantchous 43J 

Army, instructions for an 487 

Army of the Chinese 47(. 

Army lists in China 609 

Army, the British in China. . . .t-51< 

Attack on British ships 589 

Attaran schooner lost 354 

Autumnus’ boat fired on 18: 

Aviary of the late T. Beale 59 

Banners of the Mantchous. .... 431 
Bath, description of a Chinese . . 215 

Beale, death of Thomas 59 

Bean curd, mode of making 32< 

Beds of the Mantchous 428 

Belleisle, troop ship arrives 67< 

Belligerent parties, state of 28! 

Pontine k, brig, alias the Plover.. 397 
Bentinck’s letter to gov. of Canton 2 
Bilbaino, the Spanish brig, burnt 46! 

Birth, a triplicate If 

Blockade established 52.' 

Blockade of the Bogue 52: 

Boats for foreigners 25 

Boats ordered from the river. . . . 355 

Bogue forts attacked 580 

Bogue to be blockaded 470 

Bombay schooner, notices of. . . . 303 
Books on coast, distribution of. . 131 

Books of the Mantchous 429 

Boone, Rev. W. J., at Kulangsu 505 

Boone, Death of Mrs 509 

Bourchier, captain, report 156 

British authorities in China. . . 54,114 

British factory, quarrels of 2 

British Seamen’s hospital 191 

British forces, advance of 477 

British subjects expelled Macao. 462 

British subjects banished 244 

Brown, Rev. S. R.’s report 545 

Burial ground in Macao 48 

Burman envoy dies at Peking. . . 24 

Cabinet ministers at Peking. . . 53 

Cab inet, members of the 296 

Calendar for the year 1842 52 

Callery’s Systema Phoneticum. . 388 
Campbell’s sergeant, narrative.. . 395 
Canal, notices of the Grand .... 564 

Cancer, extirpation of a 666 

Cannon, manufacture of new .... 64 

Canton at the mercy of English . 581 

Canton ransomed 582 

Catholic priests expelled Macao. 21 

Challaye, adventure of A. C 120 

Chamber of Com. regulations of. 242 
Chandeliers of the Mantchous. . . 428 
Chandoo or prepared opium .... 587 

i 'hapel for foreigners 252 

Chapu, Mantchou Tartars of. ... . 425 

Chapii, capture of city of 342 

Chapu, military state of 292 

Chapu, its situation 163 

Charhar, department of 443 

Chau Tientsioh’s memorial 354 

Chekiang, topography of . . . . J01,l<:2 

Chief supt.’s office abolished. 189,193 



Child of the Ocean, a river. 374 

Chili province, the topograply of. 438 

Chinese national character 480 

Chinese lang., helps to study . . . 388 
Chinese put Canton in defense . . 582 

Chinese schools at Penang 176 

Chinese Repository begun 9 

Chinese thieves at Amoy, 150 

Chinhai, the fall of 61 

Chinhai, authorities at 115 

Chinhai, an attack on 233 

Chinkau, destruction of opium at 458 
Chinkiang, the battle of . . . . 512,518 
Chinkiang, the department of. . . 220 
Cholera, instances of the . . . 130,679 
Chrestomathy, a Chinese. . . 157,223 
Chu’s lt.-gov. admonitions to people 12 

Chuenhiu, an ancient king 616 

Chuenpi, naval battle of 469 

Chuenpi attacked and taken. .. . 578 
Churchill, death of lord John. . . 525 

Chusan, government of 627 

Chusan, recapture of 60 

Chusan, authorities at 115 

Chusan evacuated 579 

City-gate, notices of a visit to . . . 124 

City gates, scene at 26,287 

Coasting vessels noticed 15 

Cochinchina, insurrection in. . . 20,22 

Cochinchina, king of 400,675 

Cochinchinese language 450 

Coc.hinchinese envoy from Hue. . 21 

Co-hong, the evils of the 351 

Commerce, plans for extending. . 128 
Commercial houses, foreign.... 55 
Commissioners, Hi-ngan, &c.. . . 10 

Commissioners, their conduct. . . 571 

Commissioners, the joint 515 

Commission of H. B. Majesty. . . 248 
Commission of H. B. M. its policy 122 
Commission of H. B. M. extended 188 
Commission, changes in H. B. M. 128 
Committee of Correspondence. . 244 
Committee of roads, lands, &c . . 240 
Condition of affairs in China .... 76 

Confucius, life of 411 

Constellation, reminiscences of.. 329 

Constellation, U. S. frigate 183 

Consuls, list of foreign 55 

Coolidge, J. carried into city.- • • • 582 
Coronor’s inquest by the Nanhai 355 

Cradles of the Mantchous 427 

Crimes of the British 522 

Currency, regulation of the 129 

Davis’ Sketches of China 81 

Davis’ qualifications for writing. 82 

Davis writes to Palmerston 75 

Davis becomes pres, of factory . . 6 

Decorations of the Mantchous. . 430 

Defenses about Canton 182 

Demands of the plenipotentiary. 512 
Dent, Mr. Lancelot, donation . . . 544 
Dent, Mr. Lancelot, demanded. . 356 

Dicey’s narrative 633 

Diseases, list of cases and 670 

Dragon boats, racing of 436 

Dreams of the Red Chamber 266 

Drought in Canton 129 

Duties on British ships revoked. . 24 

Duties on the local commerce. . . 183 

Earthquake in Yunnan 21 

Earthquake in Macao 520 

Easy Lessons, notice of the 389 

Eclipses of the sun and moon. . . 518 
E. I. Co.’s rights in China cease. . 24 

Edge-tools, mode of sharpening. 326 
Edwards A. P. seized by Chinese 586 
Edwards, Robert, postmaster. . . . 240 

Elliot advises gov. Tang, 196 

Elliot’s remarks on going to Can- 
ton 188,198 

Elliot allowed to go to the city. 245 
Elliot’s movts. regarding peace. 581 

Elliot, capt. leaves Canton 410 

Elliot and Bremer leave China . . £84 
Elliot reported to the court,.... 242 

Elliot becomes chief sup 189,195 

Elliot’s interview with Kishen 579,644 
Ellis, roy. mar. capt., report. .. . 157 

Emperors of Ming dynasty 592 

Emperor’s birthday anniversary . . 131 
Emperor’s rescript upon treaty . . 629 
Empress, death of the 19,524 

Evacuation of Chuenpi 578,644 

Expedition, second, its strength. 526 
Expeditions, the three 526 

Fables of the poet Sii Tungpii. 139 
Factories, three, in Canton burned 687 
Fairy, the brig, lost on coast. . . . 255 

Falsehood, an instance of 508 

Famine in Kia.ngsl 19 

Fankwei,, remarks on the term . . 325 
Farewell, Gough’s to the army... 688 

Fast for the inundation . 25 

Fatqua’s hong shut up,. 128 

Finance com. of E. I. C. exit of the 470 
Fitzgerald, tomb of It. Edward. . . 50 

Flags in Canton struck,. ....... 655 



Flags relioistcd at the factories . . 18" 
Forces, British land and sea. . . . 11C 
Forces of the imperial army. . . . 47b 

Foreigners maligned 193 

Foreigners detained at Canton. . 35t : 
Foreigners all leave Canton .... 582 
Formosa, barbarity of officers in. 68* 

Formosa, prisoners in 627 

x Formosa, rebellion in 12 

Fortifications on tire river 238 

Forts, five new, near Canton .... 64 

France, the flag of 11 

Franks appear in China, 612 

French ships at north 647,676 

Friend of China, No. 1. &c .... 184 
Frigates two reach Whampoa.. . 70 

Fuchau fu in Fukien 655 

Fukien, topography of 651 

Fukien dialect, orthography 28 

Fuhi, portrait of the emperor. . . . 173 
Funghwa, a visit to the city .... 180 

General chamber of commerce. 195 
General Orders by Gough, 60,236,343 

Goncalves’, pere, death 585 

Gordon, G. J. visits the Win hills 129 

Gough’s arrival 580 

Gough, sir Hugh, dispatches 148,496 

Gough leaves China 688 

Gov. Findlay, brig visits Fukien. 129 
Grammar, Notices on Chinese. . 317 
Graves of foreigners in Macao.. . 49 

Great Wall, termination of 93 

Gribble, Mr. seized at Tungku - • 522 
Gully beheaded on Formosa .... 684 
Gutzlaff’s visit to city gates. . . . 125 

Hailing, death of 479,678 

Halley’s comet observed 131 

Hangchau, reinforcements at. . . 342 

Hangchau, its defenses 290 

Hangchau, the defenses of 63 

Hangchau, the department of. ... 104 

Hellas, schooner attacked 525 

Hienling, Tartar lieut.-gen 671 

Hingtai’s bankruptcy 297 

History of the Ming dynasty. . . . 595 

Hiii Naitsi dismissed 345 

Hobson’s report of hospital 655 

Holgate in charge of hospital. . 195 

Honan, people at excited 681 

Honan temple injured by fire.. . . 23 

Hongkong, land committee at. . • 184 

Hongkong, the tenure of 344 

Hongkong, the government of. . . 144 
Hongkong a free port 119 

Hongkong, changes at 296 

Hongkong Gazette published... 581 
Hongkong occupied by English . 579 

Hong-merchants go north 456 

Hong-merchants go to Chekiang . 400 

Hong-merchants, debts of 353 

Horsburgh, capt, memorial to.. . 298 
Hospital for seamen, Whampoa. 127 

Hospital at Macao 659 

Hostility against the English 521,577 

Howqua and Lord Napier, 27 

Hii Chau’s offer of services 454 

Hung Lau Mung, review of . . . . 266 

Hiipe, disturbances in 184 

Huron, the American brig 131 

Hwangti, portrait of 386 

Hwuichau fu, prisoners at 639 

Hwuilai, Dicey and companions at 639 

Illustrations of men and things 

Infanticide in Fukien, female.. 507 

Ingersoll goes to Japan 255 

Innes, goods lost by, 187,192 

Intercourse can be easily effected 265 

Interpreters much needed 223 

Inundation at Nanking 680 

Inundation in Canton 20,25 

Jancigny, col. arrives 586 

Japan, the Morrison’s visit to. . . 255 

Japanese from Hainan 244 

Japanese invade China 598,600 

Japanese, eight shipwrecked 400 

Jardine steamer arrives 130 

Je ho, or the Hot Streams 100 

Junks, the seizure of 119 

Kanpo, its position 163 

Kaulung, attack upon 466 

Kearny, arrival of commodore 183,238 

Keating, claims against Mr 130 

Khan Khoja, ruler of Kashgar. . 145 

Ki Kung, lt-gov. of Canton 24 

Kiangning, the ancient capital. . 214 
Kiangsi province, topography of. 374 
Kiangsu, military operations in. . 397 

Kiangsu, the topography of 210 

Kiau Ping Sin chi reviewed .... 487 

Kidnappers at Chusan 614 

Kienwan, the emperor 592 

Kinsai, the modern Hangchau . . 106 

Kishen at Tientsin 17 

Kishen, treaty with 578 

Kishen recalled to Peking 580 

Kiu Kien, notice of 472 



Kiying appointed commissioner. 675 

K ulfmgsii, authorities at 115 

Kulangsu, notice of island of 154,504 

Kulangsu, force at 115,020 

K unising moon, affray at 23 

Kumsing moon closed 245 

Kwan, admiral to ad. Maitland. . 300 

Lake of Hangchau, or Si hu . . . . 106 
Lake in Kiangsi, the Poyang. . . . 386 
L’Artemise, capt. La Place.... 307 

Lay, G. T. review by 487 

Lay’s remarks on the Mantchous 425 
Lecture of .T. Quincy Adams. . . 274 

Legends, extraordinary 202 

Leprosy in China 063 

Lexilogus, notice of the 380 

Li, gov. banished to Orouintsi. . . 12 

Li, governor degraded 11 

Liau Chai, notic e of the 202 

Light-house, one recomn. ended. . 298 
Lin appointed commissioner. . . . 350 

Lin Tsesii enters Canton 355 

Lin and Tang banished to Hi. . . 584 

Lin Tsesii’s memorial 21 

Lin Weihi, the death of 458 

Lin becomes governor 524 

Lindsay, an attack on H. H 12 

Lintsing, temple at 564 

Ljungstedt, death of sir A 131 

Locusts in Kwangsi 21 

Locusts rise in rebellion 130 

Lii, the mountains of 381 

Lu, the death of governor 131 

Macao, changes in 400 

Macao, Inner Harbor of 524 

Macao, Matheson’s donation to. . 181 
Macdonald, capt., his statements. 81 

Mackenzie’s, K. S., narrative 643 

Madagascar steamer burnt 634 

Maitland’s dispatch to Elliot. . . . 298 

Majoribanks leaves China 6 

Majoribanks’ newyear’s dinner. . 1 

Manifesto, people’s rejoinder to. 685 
Manifesto of people at Canton. . . 630 
Manifesto by people of Tinghai. . 646 
Mantchou Tartars, account of. . . 425 
Mantchous, the houses of the. . . . 426 

Mantchou ladies 434 

Marine police, rules for a 354 

Marines land in Canton 70 

Materialism of Chinese 202 

Matheson’s, .Tames, donation. .. . 181 
McBryde, llev. T. and family.. 506 
Medals, notice of military 321 

Medlmrst’s report of school 231 

Medical Miss. Soc. 3d report. . . 659 
Medical Mis. Soc., meeting of.. . 520 
Med. Mis. Society’s operations. . 335 
Medical Missionary Society. . . . 251 

Militia, new levies of 64 

Militia, disbanding of native. ... 576 
Military operations of the British 289 
Military forces, lists of British.. 116 

Ming Shi reviewed 592 

Minglun tang, assemblages at 686 

Mission, the special, to China. . . 114 

Morrison, the grave of Mrs 48 

Morrison, death of Rev. Robi. n. d. 65 
Morrison Ed. Soc., meeting of.. . 520 
Morrison Ed. Soc.’s fouith report. 541 
Mor. Education Soc. organized. 191 

Mor. Ed. Society’s schools 337 

Morrison’s Dictionary, cost of. . . 388 

Mowqua’s death 130 

Murad beg, chief of the Usbecks 145 

Nan Sung Chichuen reviewed. . 529 
Nanking, notices of the city. . . . 214 

Nanking, or Kiangning 518 

Napier met by Chinese deputies. 69 
Napier suggests a chamber of com. 68 

Napier retires to Macao 74 

Napier dies at Macao 74 

Napier and family arrive in China 25 
Napier, a monument to lord .... 127 
Napier’s commission appointed. . 25 

Napier’s letter to the governor. . 26 

Napier’s fort occupied 580 

Napier’s second letter to Palmer- 
ston 66 

Napier’s fort commenced 188 

Narrative of sergeant Campbell. 395 
Naval forces, list of English. ... 119 

Navy at Chapu 432 

Negotiations commenced 70 

Negotiations, character of Chi- 
nese 577 

Nemesis steamer fired at 579 

Nerbudda abandoned by captain 683 

Nerbudda transport lost 585 

Ningpo reoccupied by Chinese. . 470 

Ningpo, an attack on 233 

Ningpo, and its subdivisions. . . . 163 

Ningpo, the fall of 61 

Ningpo, the city of, evacuated. . 342 
Niu Kien governor, degraded .... 681 
Niu Kien to sir Henry Pottinger 569 

Notices of the Pei ho 92 

Notices of Hangchau 10 1 

Notices on Chinese grammar. • • 317 



Novel, the dreams in the R. Cham. 266 

Observation on natives 480 

Officers of the U. S. squadron. . . 238 
Officers, provincial at Canton ... 53 

Official intercourse forbidden... 76 
Official papers, summary of . . . . 470 
Ophthalmic hospital, report of. . 187 
Opium trade is not smuggling. . 190 

Opium burnt in Canton 127 

Opium to be destroyed 457 

Opium trade, Elliot’s remarks on, 401 

Opium to be surrendered 356 

Opium, mode of smoking, 587 

Opium, searching for 241 

Opium, trade in, flourishing 187 

Opium, memorials on,. .... . 190,191 

Opium trade begun on the coast 128 

Opium, legislation on 244 

Opium, opposition against 297 

Opium, pledge not to deal in ... . 360 
Opium, 20,283 chests, surrendered 366 

Opium, Elliot’s notice of 346 

Opium, memorials against 345 

Opium, edicts against 6,7 

Opium-smoking in Penang 587 

< lithography, the new system of. 28 
Oxus, journal to the river 142 

Pagoda, the porcelain 215,680 

Palmerston’s instruction to Napier 22 

Pamir, the situation of 143 

Parapattan, school at 231 

Parker, sir William, dispatches 152,501 

Parker’s, admiral, arrival 584 

Parsee graves in China 51 

Passes of the Great Wall 448 

Pay of the Mantchou officers. . . 432 
Peace, items of the treaty of. . . . 514 

Peacock, U. S. ship 11 

Pei ho, notices of the 92 

Pei ho, anchorage off the 93,99 

Peking, notices of the city 87 

Peking, situation of 92 

Peking, the avenue to 98 

Periodical, a Chinese monthly . . 19 

Petition, superintendents not to. . 189 
Pin (petition) word disallowed . . 264 

Pin, the use of the term 348 

Pinto, gov. note to Mr. Matheson 181 
Pinto, gov. arrives in Macao. . . . 242 

Piraces near the Bogue 184 

Plover, brig, the late Bentinck . . 397 
Plowden returns to China. ..... 11 

Poison in springs of water 464 

Policy of the Mantchou govt 121 

Porcelain, site of its manufacture 380 
Portraits of ancient Chinese 47,1 1 1, 
Portuguese govt, instructions from 191 

Portuguese govt, at Macao 54 

Portuguese troops go to Peking 601 

Post-office establishment 240 

Potomac, U. S. frigate 9 

Pottinger, sir H., proclamations 119, 

Pottinger, sir Henry’s return .... 64 

Pottinger’s, sir Henry, arrival. . . 584 

Presses and wardrobes 427 

Prisoners of Madagascar released 642 

Prize money, agents for 115 

Proclamation against seditious 

meetings 686 

Provinces, divisions of the eighteen 46 
Pwanku, a portrait of 47 

Q,uin goes to the eastern coast. 254 
Quin, capt. in II. B. M. S. Raleigh 130 

Rebellion in Kwangtung 6 

Register, the commencement of. 181 
Regulations, new and restrictive 128 

Relation with foreigners 78 

Relations, British, state of 185 

Reminiscences of the U. S. frigate 

Constellation 329 

Reply to lord W. C. Bentinck ... 4 

Residents, lists of foreign 55 

Retrospection. . 1,65,121,185,241,297, 
Reynolds, E. G. assist land, offi . 240 

Rice, importation of 17,20 

Riot in Canton, Dec. 12th, 1838. 307 
Riot in Canton, Dec. 7th, 1842. . 687 
River obstructed at Howqua’s fort 586 

Rivers in Chekiang 168 

Roads, the committee for 240 

Robinson, sir G. B. chief supert. . 80 

Robinson, sir G. at Lintin 185 

Robinson, sir G.’s policy 131 

Roof of the world, Bam-i-Diiniah 143 

Sarah, the first free trader 24 

Scholars of the Mor. Ed. Soc.. . . 552 

School-books wanted 548 

Schooners built on European mod. 525 
Seamen’s Friend Association. . . 350 

Seminary at Parapattan 231 

Senhouse’s sir H. F.death 583 

Serpent, H. M. brig, visit Formosa 627 
Shantung, topograply of 557 



Shanghai attacked 3! >7 

Shansi, topography of 617 

Shauhau, portrait of 453 

Shinnung, portrait of 322 

Ships of war required 255 

Shipwrecked Chinese 247 

Shrines of the Mantchous 429 

Shuntien, department of 444 

Siamese tribute-bearers 130 

Sinologues, present number of. . 158 

Sketch of Confucius’ life 411 

Sketches of China, by Davis. ... 81 

Smith, G. H. on opium smoking. 587 

Smokers of opium warned 524 

Smugglers, seizure of 239 

Smuggler killed at Whampoa. . . 183 

Smugglers, action against 263 

Snow at Canton, fall of 187 

Society, the dissensions in foreign 129 

Soldier’s Manual, the 487 

Sovereigns, portraits of the three 110 
Spelter, export of, forbidden. ... 12 

St. Paul’s church, Macao, burnt. . 81 

St. Vincent, the ship, boat lost. . 355 

Stanton, Vincent seized 527 

Statesmen in China, life of.... 610 

Statistics of Chekiang 162 

Stewart, C. E. assist, secretary. . 240 
Stronach, reports of his school. . 176 

Su Tungpu, works of 132 

Siichau, the statistics of 216 

Sung dynasty, the Southern 529 

Summary of official papers 470 

Sycee not to be exported 21 

Sz’chuen, insurrection in.... 17,128 

Ta Papau, a kidnapper 615 

Tales of Tau priests 204 

Tang’s answer to Elliot 196 

Tang Tingching arrives 187 

Teishin and Tsishin degraded’. . 681 
Tie-chew dialect, Lessons in ... . 389 
Tientsin, defenses at city of. • . . 296 

Tientsin, the defenses of 63 

Tientsin, the situation of 97 

Tinghai (Chusan) a free port. . . . 119 

Tinghai, capture of 60 

Tinghai, manifesto by people of. 646 

Tones in Chinese 44 

Topography of A'nhwui 307 

Topography of Chili province. . . 438 

Topography of Shansi 617 

Topography of the eighteen pro- 
vinces 44 

Topography of Fukien 651 

Trade of the British stopped. . . 68,70 

Traits of native character 480 

Treachery, an instance of 508 

Treaty, emperor approves 629 

Treaty, memorial regarding the . 571 
Treaty, manner of signing the. . 575 

Treaty of peace broken off 579 

Treaty, signing of the 519 

Treaty, a commercial, proposed. . 67 

Trial at Hongkong, notices of a. 461 
Troughton, the English bark .... 130 

Tsang Wangyen, letter to 389 

Tsientang river described 170 

Tsz’ki, skirmishing at 496 

Tsz’ki, situation and capture of. 498 
Tsz’ki, a visit to the city of. . . . 180 

Tsz’ki, an attack on 234 

Tsungming, notice of the island . 221 

Tyfoon of Aug. 5th, 1835 130 

Tyfoon of Aug. 3d, 1832 10 

Tyfoon at Macao &c 583 

Tyrant, the village, executed.. . . 21 

United Sates’ ships of war. . 11,186 

Useful Knowledge, Society for. . 131 

Vessels on the coast 15 

Victoria, Lin’s letter to queen. . . 522 
Vincennes, U. S. sloop, 186 

Wang Ting, suicide of 399,456 

Wang Tsinglan, letter of 389 

Wanli, emperor of Ming 599 

,War with China, cause of the. . . 281 

[War; the cause of the 510 

Warehousing in Macao 522 

White Deer vale in Kiangsi. . . 383 

Wood, It. John’s journal 142 

Writing, the several modes of. .. 175 
Wii’s visit to the Constellation. . 333 
Wiisung attacked 397,676 

Yangtsz’ kiang, course of 374 

Yihin, emperor’s son 16 

Yishan, an interview with . . 183 

Yishan, Yiking, and Wanwei de- 
graded > 685 

Yuen Yuen made cabinet minister 20 

Yuen Yuen, sonnets by 327 

Yuenfusiuen, king of Cochinchina 400 

Yiikien commits suicide 63,583 

Yiiyau, a visit to the city 189 



Vol. XI. — November, J842. — No. 11. 

Art. I. Retrospection, or a review of public occurrences in China , 
during the last ten years, from January Is#, 1842, to December 
31s#, 1841. (Concluded from page 528.) 

Negotiations, commenced at Tientsin in August, 1840, were pend- 
ing at this remote part of the empire at the close of that year. On 
the part of the Chinese they were conducted by Kishen, and by 
captain Elliot on the part of the British. Captain Elliot strove to 
obtain, by fair words and arguments, indemnity for the past and 
security for the future. In this strife of words, it was not difficult to 
foresee on which side the victory would rest. The Chinese, from the 
very nature of their civil constitution, could not yield to the demands 
made on them, unless forced to do so; nor would they, in plain 
terms, give that which they knew they had not the power to withhold. 
Their only chance of success was in foiling their adversary by pro- 
mises and delays; and in this way month after month had slipped by. 
The protestations of friendliness, assumed at the north when the 
British squadron appeared off the mouth of the Pei ho, were gradually 
laid aside, and a menacing attitude began to be assumed. Secret 
orders had been dispatched from Peking to all the generals, go- 
vernors, and lieut.-governors along the coast, requiring them to in- 
crease the strength of their defenses. At length an edict came out, 
from which the following is an extract, dated 
January 6 th, 1841. * * * If the said foreigners (the English) again come to 

present any petiti ms, let them all be utterly rejected ; should any of their ships 
sail near the ports on the coast, at once let matchlocks and artillery be opened, 
and the thundering attack be made dreadful. There must be no wavering, so as 
to twnibit the slightest degree of fear. Chi. Rep., vol. X., p. 118. 



578 Review of Public Occurrences During the Nov 

This edict, elicited by reports which had been sent up to the em- 
peror, both from Chekiang by Liu the It. -governor, and from Canton 
by Kishen, virtually nullified the armistice which had been agreed 
upon previously, and announced to the Chinese in an edict of Nov. 
17th, 1840. 

7 tk. A circular was issued at Macao announcing to the British 
residents there the fall of the forts at Chuenpi. 

“ Negotiations having been interrupted, the positions of Chuenpi and Tfiicock- 
tow were simultaneously attacked this morning by sea and land, and have both 
fallen to H. M.’s arms. It will be very satisfactory to H. M.’s subjects to learn 
that this gallant achievement was effected with trifling loss, notwithstanding an 
obstinate and honorable defense at all points. 

(Signed) “Charles Elliot, H. M.’s plenipotentiary. 

II M. ship Wellesley, at anchor in Anson’s bay, 7th January, 1841.” 

The details of this engagement are to be found in vol. X., page 
37. While the forces were getting ready to advance to the attack 
on the forts at the Bogue, his excellency admiral Kw&n sought an 
armistice, which was agreed to, and announced by a second circular, 
dated off Anunghoy, on board H. M.’s ship Wellesley. 

“A communication has been received from the Chinese commander-in-chiof, 
which has led to an armistice, with the purpose to afford the high commissioner 
time to consider certain conditions now offered for his acceptance. 

(Signed) “Charles Elliot, H. M. plenipotentiary.” 

On this same day, the 8th, Kishen sent up a memorial to the 
throne, regarding the attack on the forts at Chuenpi. This and the 
imperial replies are in vol. X., p. 108. 

9 th. Sundry merchants in Macao addressed sir Gordon Bremer, 

remonstrating against the permission of egress from the river of the 
American merchantmen Kosciusko and Panama. C. Reg., Mar. 9 th. 

20 th. A circular was issued to her Britannic majesty’s plenipoten- 
tiary in Macao, announcing the conclusion of preliminary arrange- 
ments between the imperial commissioner and himself, involving the 
conditions of a treaty, in which it was agreed on the part of the Chi- 
nese that the island and harbor of Hongkong were to be ceded to the 
British crown, six millions of indemnity to be paid by the Chinese, 
direct official intercourse allowed on equal terms, and the trade of 
the port to be opened in ten days. Vol. X., p. 63. 

21 st. The British colors, which for several days had been flying 
over the demolished forts at Chuenpi, were hauled down, and the 
forces retired from the mouth of the river. 

23 d. H. M. brig Columbine, comd. Clarke, was dispatched to 
Chusan, with dispatches requiring its evacuation by the British. 



Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841. 

2 Oth. The island of Hongkong was this day taken peaceable 
possession of in the name of her Britannic majesty, queen Victoria, 
with the formalities of hoisting the Union Jack, royal salute, &c. 

27th. An interview took place near the pagoda at the Second 
Bar, on the river of Canton, between Kishen and captain Elliot. 

29th. Captain Elliot issued a proclamation, providing for the go 
vernment of the island of Hongkong. Vol. X., p. 63. 

30th. Captain Elliot, on his return from the interview with Ki- 
shen, issued the following 


“The plenipotentiary acquaints H. M. subjects that the negotiations with the 
imperial commissioner proceed satisfactorily. Learning, however, that H. M. sub. 
jects are preparing to go to Canton, he feels it his duty to declare, that if persons 
pursue that course before he publishes a declaration that he considers it safe and 
suitable, must be pleased to understand that they are acting contrary to his sense 
of what is right for the public interest, and must incur the whole risk and respon- 
sibility of their own proceedings. 

(Signed) Charles Elliot, H. M. plenipotentiary.” 

February Isf. Their excellencies, the commander-in-chief, and 
plenipotentiary issued a proclamation to the Chinese of Hongkong, 
declaring them subjects of the queen of England, and giving them 
assurance of protection, &.c. 

1 Ith. An imperial edict was received by Klshen, blaming him 
for having solicited an extension of favor towards the English, and 
declaring that he had only pretended to promise, &c. Vol. X., p. 19. 

13 th. H. M. plenipotentiary held a second interview with Klshen. 
He returned to Macao on the 15th. 

18f/«. The boat of the steamer Nemesis was fired at from the fort 
upon Wangtong. 

19/A. A circular was issued at Macao by captain Elliot, giving 
information of the commander-in-chiefis intention to move his forces 
towards the Bogue, which was accordingly done. 

23d. Hostilities resumed against the Chinese, Kishen having 
failed to conclude the treaty of peace previously agreed on. 

24 th. The island of Chusan was this day evacuated by the British 
troops, the Chinese having previously released the prisoners in their 
possession. Capt. Anstruther, Mrs. Noble, and the other prisoners 
at Ninorpo reached the shipping after the island was evacuated. Vol. 
X., pp. 184, 191. 

25 th. Rewards were offered by the Chinese authorities at Canton, 
for Englishmen, dead or alive : $50,000 were to be paid for the ring- 
leaders, Vol. X., pp. 120, 174. 

Review of Public Occurrences During the 



2 6#/i. The forts at the Bogue were attacked and taken by the 
British forces, under command of sir Gordon Bremer. A notice was 
issued the same day by the commander-in-chief, raising the blockade 
of the Bogue. 

27th. A battery of some 50 guns, just below Whampoa, w r as des- 
troyed, and the late British ship Cambridge (then called the Che- 
sapeake) was blown up. 

March Is#. The river was cleared for ships to Whampoa, and the 
vessels proceeded up the river. 

2d. Major-general sir Hugh Gough, k. c. b. &c., &c., arrived at 
Whampoa, in H. M. brig Cruizer, to assume command of the British 
land forces. 

A masked battery, on the northeast end of Whampoa island was 
carried by boats’ crews, and the advanced squadron anchored off 
Howqua’s fort. Vol. X., pp. 179, 180. 

3 cl. The prefect of Canton, after a good deal of hesitation, visited 
capt. Elliot under a flag of truce, and a suspension of hostilities 

About this time a board of commissioners was appointed by the 
emperor, and dispatched to Canton. These were Yishfin, Lungwan, 
Yang Fi-ing, and Tsishin. 

6#A. The armistice granted by H. M. plenipotentiary having ex- 
pired, Napier’s fort, in immediate advance of Howqua’s folly, was 
occupied by the British forces, and a proclamation issued to the 
Chinese of Canton, sparing the city on condition that the people 
would remain quiet. 

10#//. The plenipotentiary at Macao, issued a circular, declaring 
that the passports of the Chinese granted to other ships than the 
British could not be respected, the port of Canton from one extreme 
to the other being under her Britannic majesty’s arms. 

\2th. Kishen, having been degraded and deprived of his insignia 
and credentials of office, and recalled to Peking, left Canton as a 
prisoner under guard. 

13#//. The fort, in the Macao passage, near Canton, was occupied 
by British forces, under command of captain Herbert. 

On the same day, the Nemesis, lieut. Hall, proceeded from Macao 
to Canton by the Inner Passage, destroying several forts and nine 
junks on her way up. Captain Elliot was on board. 

18 th. A flag of truce having been fired on, during the 16th, the 
remaining defenses in Macao passage, the Dutch folly, a large flo- 
tilla of boats, were taken or destroyed, and the city of Canton placed 


Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841. 


under the guns of the squadron, and the foreign factories occupied 
by British troops. This was done just two years after Lin, with his 
high hand, stopped the egress of foreigners from Canton, and of their 
shipping from Whampoa. Vol. X., p. 181. 

20th. A suspension of hostilities was agreed upon, between the 
imperial commissioner Yang and captain Elliot; the port was opened 
equally to the ships of all nations. 

21s/. All vessels are allowed to proceed to Whampoa, but do so 
at the risk of the parties sending them. Vol. X., p. 182. 

2 6/A. Two young officers of the Blenheim were lost while pro- 
ceeding from Macao to their ship in the Roads. 

Mr. Field, a British subject, belonging to the merchant service, 
was lost at the same time. His body, washed up on shore near the 
Barrier, was found April 1st. 

April 5th. Captain Elliot returned to Canton, and took up his 
residence in the British hall. 

12 th. It was agreed by and with the members of the co-hong that 
the duties on foreign commerce should be the same as they were the 
preceding year. Vol. X., p. 234. 

14/A. Yishcin and Lungwan, the new commissioners, and K1 
Kung, made their entrance into Canton. 

16/A. Captain Elliot received what he regarded as satisfactory 
information of the faithful intentions of the new commissioners to 
abide by the engagements made by Yang Fang. 

17/A. . A circular was issued by the plenipotentiary, requiring 
all small vessels on the river to be furnished with passports from 

25 th. A court of inquiry was in cession at Hongkong, touching 
the mortality of the troops in Tinghai, during the preceding year. 

30/A. Captain (since major) William Caine, of H. M. 26th reo-i- 
ment was appointed chief magistrate of Hongkong. 

Rules and regulations for the British merchant service arriving in 
the port of Hongkong were published. Vol X., p. 287. 

May Is/. The first number of the Hongkong Gazette published 
under this date, by the authorities of that island. 

3th. A Chinese, for having dared to speak about foreign affairs 
was publicly beaten in the streets of Canton. This was a clear index 
of the feelings and purposes of the imperial and provincial authorities 

10/A. Captain Elliot proceeded to Canton in the Nemesis, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Elliot. He suspected mischief was concoctino-, and 
went up as he did in order to conceal his suspicions. 

Review of Public Occurrences During the 



More than three hundred fishing smacks collected in the Inner 
Harbor at Macao, and armed themselves against pirates; the Chinese 
government, not being able to resist the pirates, and afford protec- 
tion to the fisherman, sanctioned their measures adopted for self- 

The Columbine, captain Clarke, returned to the commodore, the 
dispatches to the government of Chekiang having been refused. 

\\th. The military operations for defense of Ningpo and Chusan 
were pushed forward with the utmost dispatch. 

[1th. Captain Elliot again left Macao to join H. B. M.’s forces, 
then for the third time preparing to advance on Canton. 

New guns were brought from Fahshan, and numerous batterie 9 
completed and manned along the banks of the river, both above and 
below the factories. 

2 Q th. Yu, the acting prefect of Canton, issued an edict, to calm 

the fears of foreigners and of the natives, who, distrusting the pro- 
testations of the government, were leaving the city in large numbers. 

21sf. Captain Elliot, being himself again in Canton, recommend- 
ed all foreigners to retire from the factories before sunset. This was 
done by all, excepting parties belonging to two American houses. 

At about 10 o’clock p. m., the Chinese commenced the attack on 
the British ships, at several points simultaneously, with fire-rafts 
afloat, and with guns on shore. 

22 d A boat, belonging to the American ship Morrison, was fired 
on and the people seized, excepting only a sailor-boy, who was lost- 
Vol. X., pp. 295, 415. 

Mr. Coolidge was seized near the factories, (some of which were 
pillaged) and carried into the city. Mr. Morss and captain Ben- 
son escaped the mob, and succeeded in reaching the Nemesis in one 
of the ship’s boats. All the factories east of Hog lane were sacked 
by Chinese soldiers and populace, accompanied by officers. 

24 th. The British forces under sir Hugh Gough and sir Le Flem- 
ing Senhouse, commenced their operations against the city. Major 
Pratt landed with the Cameronians at the factories, while the main 
body of the army proceeded up the river. 

25th The force having landed two or three miles distant from 
the northwest corner of the city, advanced at an early hour and took 
possession of the heights above Canton. 

21 th The authorities of Canton agreed to pay six millions of 

dollars for the ransom of the provincial city, and thereupon hostilities 
ceased. Vol. X. pp. 346, 396. 


Last Ten Years, from 18:52 to 1841. 


3Q#A. An armed population, ten or fifteen thousand strong ap- 
peared on the heights, and were repeatedly, and with considerable 
slaughter, driven back. 

31s#. The populace appeared again, and were again driven back ; 
besides Chinese officers, the prefect and others went out to keep 
them in check. 

Five millions of the ransom money having been paid, and securi. 
ties taken for the remaining one million, the British forces withdrew 
from Canton. 

June Is#. The people north of Canton continued to arm them- 
selves in self-defense, ranged under banners, on which were inscribed 
iping, i. e. “patriotic soldiers.” 

An edict was issued by Chinese military officers forbidding the 
inhabitants to molest the graves of those English who had been in- 
terred on the heights. 

Yishan and Lungwan took their departure from Canton, most of 
the troops from the provinces having preceded them. 

7th. By proclamation, made by H. M. plenipontiary, Hongkong 
was declared a free port, and “full protection from the high officers 
of the British nation.” Vol. X., p. 350. 

13#/?. Died on board H. M. ship Blenheim, at Hongkong, capt. 
sir Humphry Le Fleming Senhouse, k. c. b., &c., &.c. 

14?'A. Agreeably to public notice, a sale by auction of the an- 
nual quit-rent of lands, took place at Hongkong. Vol. X., p. 351. 

Flipu was ordered by the emperor to appear before the Board of 
Punishments, to answer to charges of misconduct. Vol. X., p. 447. 

18#/?. Commodore sir J. J. Gordon Bremer arrived in the steamer 
Queen from Calcutta, having been appoined joint plenipotentiary. 

22 d. Alexander Robert Johnston, esq., deputy superintendent of 
the trade of British subjects in China, assumed charge of the go- 
vernment of Hongkong. 

July Is#. The Medical Missionary Society held its second annual 
meeting in Macao. 

6#/t. H. M. ship Calliope, captain Kuper, sailed for Calcutta, 
with about two millions of the money taken as ransom for Canton. 

16#/?. British trade with the port of Canton was reopened, by a 
proclamation issued in obedience to the imperial commands. 

17#/?. H. M. ship Conway, captain Bethune, sailed for England, 
with upwards of two millions of the ransom money. 

21s#. A typhon of great violence visited Macao, Hongkong, and 
vicinity, doing much damage. Vol. X., pp. 407,. 421. 


Review of Public Occurrences During the 


2(ith. A second storm occurred, adding many losses to those 
sustained on the previous day. 

The ex-governors, Lin and Tang, about this time, were sentenced 
to banishment to I'll. News also arrived from England, intimating 
the purpose of removing captain Elliot from the office of plenipoten- 
tiary, both the Chinese and English governments thus choosing to 
manifest displeasure at the conduct of their high public officers. 

August 10^/t. During the night, the E. I. Co.’s steam frigate 
Sesostris arrived in Macao Roads, bringing as passengers, colonel sir 
Henry Pottinger, H. B. M.’s sole plenipotentiary and minister extra- 
ordinary to the court of Peking; sir William Parker, rear-admiral 
and commander-in-chief of the Brtish naval forces in the East In- 
dies; also major Malcolm, Mr. assistant-surgeon Woosnam, Mr. 
Chimmo, and lieut. Tennant. 

1 \th. Their excellencies landed on the Praya Grande in Macao, 
under a salute from the battery ; and soon after met sir Hugh Gough, 
and waited on the governor of Macao. The admiral then proceeded 
to Hongkong. 

12th. Sir Henry Pottinger issued a proclamation, briefly setting 
forth the objects of his mission. 

13 tli. 'The admiral, having returned on the preceding day, re- 
embarked with sir Hugh Gough for Hongkong, while major Mal- 
colm proceeded with dispatches for the Canton government. 

20 tli. Sir Henry Pottinger embarked this evening in the steamer 
Queen, and proceeded the next morning to join the expedition at 

21s<. His excellency landed at Hongkong, inspected the public 
works, and visited the various officers of government there. 

22 d. Having repeated his visit on shore, sir Henry proceeded to 
join the squadron, then already under sail for the north. 

21th. Captain Charles Elliot, late plenipotentiary, &.C., &.c., 
embarked with his lady and family, accompanied by sir J. J. Gordon 
Bremer, and Alexander Anderson, esq., in the steamer Atalanta, for 

26 th. The British forces, this afternoon took possession of the de- 
fenses at Amoy. Vol. X., pp. 524, 621 ; vol. XI., p. 148. 

21th. The town and citadel of Amoy were taken by the British, 
the Chinese having fled. 

September. H. M. ship Royalist, in the early part of this month, 
destroyed all the fortifications on Wangtong, thus completing the 
entire destruction of all the defenses at the Bogue. 

1 * 4 - 2 . 

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 184 1. 



4th. The steamer Nemesis hud an engagement, with some junks 
and small forts at Sheipii in Fukien, which were taken and dis- 

5th. The expedition, which had been sometime detained by con- 
trary winds, again proceeded northward. Vol. X., p. 623. 

16£/<. The prefect of Canton, Yu Paushun was driven from the 
hall of Examination by the literary candidates. Vol. X., p. 527. 

18<A. The prefect resolved to leave his office. His popularity 
and standing were lost by the part he took in the late collision with 
the British, the people denouncing him as a traitor. Ibid. 

23 d. The schooner Maria, through the carelessness of her crew, 
lost near Chuenpi. Vol. X., p. 528. 

2 6th. The transport Nerbudda was lost about this time near the 
north end of Formosa, or on the Piscadore islands, having been dri- 
ven down from near Chusan ; 33 of the crew, in the long boat were 
picked up by capt. Mann of the schooner Black Swan near Hong- 
kong, Oct. 6th. 

29 th. The third annual meeting of the Morrison Education So- 
ciety was held in Macao. Vol. X., p. 564. 

October 1st. Tinghai was retaken by the British forces, and the 
whole island soon after repossessed, the Chinese troops having been 
driven out. Vol. X., pp. 587, 623. 

3 d. Died in Macao, J. A. Gonsalves, tet. 61, well known for his 
attainments in Chinese, and his philological and other works upon 
that language. He was born in Tojul in Portugal in 1780, and ar- 
rived in China in 1812, as a missionary to the Chinese. He was 
connected with the royal college of St. Joze most of his life, where 
he published all his works upon the Chinese language. Can. Reg., 
Oct. YZth. 

The pinnace of II. M. ship Druid at Kiilangsu pursues some pi- 
rates, in whose capture and destruction they were assisted by the 
natives. Can. Reg., Oct. 19M. 

8th. Large bodies of native militia are organized by his excel- 
lency Yishan, for the future defense of Canton, to the no small an- 
noyance of the peaceable inhabitants of the city. 

10<A. Chinhai with its defenses fell into the hands of the British, 
after an obstinate resistance on the part of the Chinese, who suffered 
great losses. Vol. X., p. 588. 

13 th. Ningpo was entered without any opposition made, the Chi- 
nese troops having refused to fight. Ibid. 



Rl view of Public Occurrences, « fyc. 



15th. Yiikien, his imperial majesty’s commissioner in Chekiing 
commits suicide, atter having already once vainly tried to drown him- 

20th. The steamers Phlegethon and Nemesis proceeded to Yiiy&u, 
about forty miles westward from Ningpo. 

27th. Liii Yenko, and others, reported the fall of Ningpo to their 
master, and ask for trial by the Board of Punishments. Vol. X., 
p. 675. 

November. Defenses are erected at and near Tientsin by com- 
mand of the Chinese government, to protect the passage to the capi- 
tal by way of the Pei ho. 

1 5th. The emperor issues an edict, urging on the war of exter- 
mination against the English. Vol. X., p. 683. 

1 8th. Mr. A. P. Edwards, supercargo of the American ship Han- 
nibal, while proceeding from Whampoa to Canton through the chan- 
nel bn the south side of Hon&n, was with his boat’s crew seized and 
carried into the city. Vol. X., p. 639. 

December. During this month, the work of obstructing the river 
at Howqua’s fort by sinking of stones was completed; a similar ob- 
struction in Blenheim reach had been already formed. Many thou- 
sands of tons of stones were thrown into the channel at these two 
points, nor was a word of complaint raised by the people against 
the construction of these very serious impediments to their free pas- 
sage of the river. 

8th. Colonel A. de Jancigny, in charge of a commercial mission 
from the French government, arrived in China in the ship-of-war 
Erigone, capt. Cecille. Vol. X., p. 688. 

10//t. Thomas Beale, esq., left his house in Macao privately, and 
all traces of him were lost till the 13th of January, when a body 
recognized as his was found buried in the sand at Cassilha’s bay. 
Vol.'xi., p. 59. 

At this date, we close this chronological list of events. Our rea- 
ders, who have followed us in the restrospect, will be able to draw' 
their own conclusions regarding the merits of the dispute which has 
arisen during these ten years. The results, mediate and remote, 
which seem likely to How from the extension of intercourse ensuent 
upon the conduct and present conclusion of this dispute, cannot be 
calculated They must be left in the hands of Him who worketh all 
things wisely among the armies of the earth, and who can educe 
great good from the most opposing interests. 


Opium-smoking in Penang. 


Art. II. Abstract of a paper on opium-smoking in Penang. 
By G. H. Smith, surgeon in Penang. — Mode of preparing 
the opium for smoking ; causes of the prevalence of the habit ; 
mode of smoking; description of a smoking-shop ; effects of the 
opium on the smoker ; influence of the habit on the health, 
vigor, and conformation of the Chinese. Extracted from John- 
son’s Medico-Chirurgical Review for April, 1842. 

The great extent to which this destructive vice is carried on in this 
island, and in the straits and islands adjacent, together with the al- 
most utter impossibility of relinquishing the dreadful habit when 
once acquired, opens an immense source of revenue to the East India 
Company, who monopolize the sale of all quantities of opium under 
a chest, as well as that of arrack, siri, toddy, bang, &.c. The 
annual average revenue of this monopoly, or revenue farms, as 
they are called, for ten years past, has amounted to 4822/. sterling. 
But the quantity of opium smuggled is immense and incalculable. 
Benares opium is that chiefly used by the farmer for the preparation 
of chandoo (the composition smoked), on account of its weight and 
cheapness; but the consumers prefer the Patna opium, because it 
has a finer flavor, is stronger, and its effects more lasting. 

The following is part of the mode of preparing the chandoo. Two 
balls are as much as one man can properly prepare at once. The 
soft inside part of the opium-ball is scooped out, and the rind is boil- 
ed in soft water, and strained through a piece of calico. The liquor 
is evaporated in a wide vessel, and all impurities carefully skimmed 
off, as they rise to the surface. The same process is gone through 
with the soft opium extracted from the ball ; and all being mixed 
and evaporated to the consistence of dough, it is spread out into thin 
plates, and when cold, it is cut into a number of long narrow slips. 
These are again reduced to powder, re-dissolved, again evaporated, 
and ultimately rolled up into balls, and a good deal resemble shoe- 
maker’s wax. In this state it is fit for smoking, and is at least twice 
the strength of crude opium. The chandoo, when once smoked, 
does not entirely lose its power, but is collected from the head of the 
pipe, and is then called tye-chandoo or faecal opium, which is made 
into pills, and swallowed by those whose poverty prevents them from 
smoking the chandoo itself. 

In Penang, the opium-smokers are the Chinese, the Malays, and 
a very few of other nations, chiefly the native Portuguese. It is cal- 

oSS Opium-smoking in Penang. Nov. 

culated that 10 per cent, of the Chinese, 2£ of the Malays, and about 
1 per cent, of other natives, are addicted to the vice of opium-smok- 
ing. The poorer classes smoke in the shops erected for that purpose, 
but the wealthier orders smoke privately in their own houses. The 
practice is almost entirely confined to the male sex, only a few aban- 
doned prostitutes of the other sex partaking of the vice. A beginner 
will not be able to smoke more than five or six grains of chandoo, 
while old smokers will consume 290 grains daily. 

One of the principal causes which lead to this dreadful habit among 
the Chinese is their remarkably social and luxurious disposition. In 
China, every person in easy circumstances has a saloon in his house, 
elegantly fitted up, to receive his friends, with pipes, chandoo, &,c. 
All are invited to smoke, and many are thus induced to commence 
the practice from curiosity or politeness, though few of them are ever 
able to discontinue the vice afterwards. 

Parents are in the habit of granting this indulgence to their chil- 
dren, apparently to prevent them from running into other vices still 
more detestable, and to which the Chinese are more prone than, 
perhaps, any people on earth. There is another cause which leads 
great numbers of youug men into the practice of opium-smoking, a 
belief, founded, it is said, on experience, that the said practice 
heightens and prolongs venereal pleasure. It is, however, admitted 
by all, that opium-smokers become impotent at a much earlier peri- 
od of life than others. In painful or incurable diseases, in all kinds 
of mental or corporeal sufferings, in mercantile misfortune, and in 
other reverses of fortune, the opium-shop is resorted to as an asylum, 
where, for a time at least, the unfortunate may drown the recollec- 
tion of his cares and troubles in an indescribably pleasurable feeling 
of indifference to all around. The Malays are confident that opium- 
smoking inspires them with preternatural courage and bodily 
strength; it is, therefore, resorted to whenever any desperate act 
is in contemplation. 

The smoking-shops are the most miserable and wretched places 
imaginable ; they are kept open from six in the morning till ten 
o’clock at night, each being furnished with from four to eight bed- 
steads, constructed of bamboo-spars, and covered with dirty mats 
and rattans. At the head of each there is placed a narrow wooden 
stool, which serves as a pillow or bolster ; and in the centre of each 
shop there is a small lamp, which, while serving to light the pipes, 
diffuses a cheerless light through this gloomy abode of vice and mi- 
M.*r.v. On an old table are placed a few cups and a tea-kettle, 

1842 . 

Opium-smoking in Paving. 


together with a jug of water, for the use of the smokers. At one 
side of the door the sub-farmer, or cabaret-keeper, sits with chandoo, 
pipes, &.C., for the accommodation of his customers. The place is 
filled with the smoke of the chandoo, and with a variety of other 
vapors, most intolerable to the olfactories of an European. The pipe, 
is composed of a shank and a head-piece, the former made of hard 
and heavy wood, fourteen inches long by three inches and a half in 
circumference. It is bored through the centre, from the mouth- 
piece to the head, where there is a kind of cup to collect the tye- 

The smokers generally go in pairs, and recline on the bedstead, with 
their heads resting on the wooden stool. The mode of proceeding is 
as follows : — first, one of the pair takes up a piece of chandoo on the 
point of a short iron needle, and lighting it at the lamp, applies it to 
the small aperture (resembling the touch-hole of a gun) in the head 
of the pipe. After a few whiffs he hands the pipe to his friend, who 
lights another piece of chandoo at the lamp; and thus they go on 
alternately smoking till they have had sufficient, or until they are 
unable to purchase any more of the intoxicating drug. The fume is 
always expelled through the nose, and old smokers even draw it into 
their lungs before it is expired. 

During this time, they are at first loquacious, and the conversation 
highly animated; but, as the opium takes effect, the conversation 
droops, they frequently burst out into loud laughter, from the most 
trifling causes, or without any apparent cause at all, unless it be 
from the train of thoughts passing through their excited imaginations. 
The next phase presents a vacancy of countenance, with a pallor 
and shrinking of the features, so that they resemble people convalesc- 
ing from a fever. A dead silence precedes a deep sleep, which con- 
tinues from half an hour to three or four hours. In this state the pulse 
becomes much slower, softer, and smaller than before the debauch. 
Such is the general proceess almost invariably observed among the 
Chinese ; but with the Malays it is often very different. Instead of 
the placidity that ushers in the profound sleep, the Malays frequently 
become outrageously violent and quarrelsome, and lives are occasion- 
ally lost in these frightful orgies. 

The chandoo is sometimes employed for the purpose of self-des- 
truction : but from its. strong smell and taste, it is never used as 
poison for others. It does not appear that sudden death is ever pro- 
duced by an overdose of chandoo when used in smoking. When an 
inordinate quantity has been expended in this way, headach, vertigo 
and nausea are the effects, and are only relieved by vomiting 


Opium-smoking iti Penang. 


When a person has once contracted the habit of opium-smoking, 
he finds it extremely difficult to discontinue the vice ; yet there are 
many instances of its being conquered by resolution of mind. In 
such attempts it is most dangerous to approach the opium-sheps, as 
the smell of the chandoo produces an irresistible desire to indulge 
once more in the pernicious habit ; neither can opium-smoking be 
suddenly abandoned without some substitute, as the most serious or 
even fatal consequences would ensue. The best substitute is a tinc- 
ture of the tye-chandoo, (which is about one fourth the strength of 
the chandoo itself), made with samshoo, a spirit made from rice, and 
taken in gradually diminished doses, till the habit is broken. By a 
continuance in this destructive practice, the physical constitution 
and the moral character of the individual, are deteriorated or destroy- 
ed, especially among the lower classes, who are impelled to the com- 
mission of crimes, in order to obtain the means of indulging in their 
dominant vice. 

The hospitals and poor-houses are chiefly filled with opium-smok- 
ers. In one that I had charge of, the inmates averaged sixty daily, 
five-sixths of whom were smokers of chandoo. The baneful effects 
of this habit on the human constitution are conspicuously displayed 
by stupor, forgetfulness, general deterioration of all the mental facul- 
ties, emaciation, debility, shallow complexion, lividness of lips and 
eyelids, languor and lack-lustre of eye, appetite either destroyed or 
depraved, sweetmeats or sugar-cane being the articles that are most 
relished. In the morning, these creatures have a most wretched ap- 
pearance, evincing no symptoms of being refreshed or invigorated by 
sleep, however profound. There is a remarkable dryness or burning 
in the throat, which urges them to repeat the opium-smoking. If 
the dose be not taken at the usual time, there is great prostration, 
vertigo, torpor, discharge of water from the eyes, and in some an 
involuntary discharge of semen, even when wide awake. If the 
privation be complete, a still more formidable train of phenomena 
take place. Coldness is felt over the whole body, with aching pains 
in all parts. Diarrhoea occurs — the most horrid feelings of wretched- 
ness come on ; and if the poison be withheld, death terminates the 
victim’s existence. 

It is generally remarked, as might, & priori, be expected, that the 
offspring of opium-smokers are weak, stunted, and decrepit. It does 
not appear, however, that the Chinese, in easy circumstances, and 
who have the comforts of life about them, are materially affected, in 
respect to longevity, by private addiction to this vice, so destruc- 


Opium-smoking in Penang. 


tive to those who live in poverty and distress. There are many per- 
sons within the sphere of my own observation, who have attained 
the age of sixty, seventy, and more, and who have been well known 
as habitual opium-smokers for more than thirty years past. It is a 
well-known fact, that the present emperor of China was a slave to the 
pernicious habit of smoking opium for many years ; but that, by 
great moral courage and perseverance, he weaned himself from the 
vice, and has ever since become a most violent persecutor of those 
who are addicted to the indulgence. He accordingly issued edicts 
of severe punishment against the smoker, vendor, importer, and all 
concerned in the traffic of opium ; and, finding these ineffectual, he 
made the crime capital, and punished it with death. Whatever may 
be said in favor of the opium traders, and against the policy or jus- 
tice of the Chinese emperor, I am convinced in my own mind that 
the real object of his edicts was the good of his subjects, and that he 
hoped, however vainly, to eradicate a vice destructive alike of the 
health and morality of those who became its victims. But his majes- 
ty’s government acted on very different principles ; namely, the most 
selfish, venal, and mercenary. It is a notorious fact, that many, per- 
haps most of the officers employed in preventing the importation and 
smuggling of opium, are themselves opium-eaters, or opium-smokers, 
and consequently that they wink at the illicit trade, >r take bribes of 
opium or dollars for the introduction of the drug. It is well known 
now, that in several of the southern provinces of China, opium is cul- 
tivated to a great extent, without any check from the local authorities, 
and, doubtless, without any knowledge of the emperor himself. The 
propensity to opium-smoking is becoming so universal and so irresisti- 
ble in China, that no sumptuary laws, however sanguinary, will be 
able to stem the torrent. In Penang, excessive duties have only 
increased the thirst for opium ; and what is worse, they have quadru- 
pled the number of murders and other crimes committed in order to 
obtain the means of procuring the drug. 

[Note. We have extracted the preceding remarks just as they stand in the 
Medico-Chirurgical Review. We wish Mr. Smith would pursue his investi- 
gations upon this subject, and especially direct his attention to those smokers 
who have reformed ; — what means they made use of to overcome the habit 
what success attended their first efforts, and how many failed in the attempt 
at reformation. We should be glad also to know if privation of the drug, 
except in those cases where the functions of the whole animal system are 
completely disorganized by long and excessive use, does result in death. 
The Chinese say that a man can safely break off the habit, if he has the deter- 
mination and courage to let the pipe alone. — There are a few points in the 
paper which are not quite clear. We suppose the 4822h to be the income de- 

History of the Ming Dynasty. 



Art. III. Ming Shi, or History of the Ming dynasty. In 68 
vols., royal octavo. Reviewed by a Correspondent. 

Two notices of >|jt Hungwu, the founder of this dynasty, having 
already appeared in the Repository, it is needless to speak again of his 
history. From a scullion he rose to be a monarch, and in truly va- 
luable qualities for ruling over a large nation has had few equals in 
all history — certainly not in Chinese history. Hungwii, in 1368, was 
in full possession of the empire, and sat up upon the throne till 
1399, a period to him of unremitted cares. In a solemn assembly 
he took leave of all his courtiers, and recommended to his well tried 
ministers his grandson, then aged only 16 years, whose reign was call- 
ed 7^ Kienwan. Notwithstanding the precautions that were 
taken to establish the throne, Ilungwu committed a radical error in 
bestowing principalities upon all his sons. When therefore, they 
saw a mere stripling appointed to succeed him, they were indignant 
at his choice, and like all ambitious princes thought themselves 
much better entitled to receive the imperial yellow, then a beardless 
boy. To crush this dangerous dissatisfaction, the regency com- 
mitted blunder upon blunder. First, they seized the weakest of the 
princes, degraded him to a common man, and sent him to Yunnan, 
to give him the opportunity of dying there of an epidemical disease. 
This naturally checked the others ; they saw before them the same 
fate, and when two officers appeared at the court of the ruler of Yen, 
to see what was transpiring, he instantly killed them as spies. This 
he did with impunity ; but not so his brothers ; one of them had kill- 
ed a magnate, and was sentenced by the regency to lose his possession 
and end his days in exile. Another on a similar accusation of hav- 
ing executed one of his subjects, preferring death to disgrace, set fire 
to his palace and perished in the flames. The prince of Yen, think- 
ing himself no longer safe, took up arms, in order, as he expressed 
himself in a manifesto, to free his innocent nephew from such treache- 
rous ministers. The struggle now commenced in true Chinese style ; 
large armies were soon collected and suddenly disappeared, cities 

rived from the opium farm in Penang alone, for the whole revenue to the 
Company and the crown cannot be much under two millions sterling. The 
remarks in the last paragraph, also, regarding the cultivation of the poppy, 
venality of the officers, and the habits of his imperial majesty, would have 
been materially modified if the writer had beemin China.] 


History of the Mijtg Dynasty. 593 

were taken and retaken ; the imperial generals the while, always 
giving a flaming account of their victories. But the result of all 
their valor was, that the young monarch was reduced to great straits, 
and to appease his clamorous uncle, he degraded his two ministers, 
but kept them still as his principal advisers. But matters grew worse 
and worse every day, and recourse was again had to negotiations, in 
which, as both parties tried to outwit each other, no treaty could be 
concluded, and affairs remained as they had been. The prince of 
Yen, perceiving that his nephew was easily frightened, and that the 
repeated losses which his army had suffered, had reduced him to the 
most helpless condition, already resolved to decide the quarrel by 
force of arms, and boldly marched towards the capital, which was 
then kept at Nanking. As for the battles between the two parties, 
which are related with much pomp, we verily believe, that the im- 
perialists only tried who could run best, and that it was not much 
else than a contest for pedestrian honors. The troops of Yen ap- 
proaching the Yungtsz’ kiang, threw the whole court into consterna- 
tion, and Kienwan considerately recommended negotiations, in order 
to delay their advance until more forces could arrive. He made 
choice of an intelligent lady, a relative of the prince of Yen, who of- 
fered him the rule over one half of the empire, in order to settle the 
dispute. The wary rebel was well aware that this proposal was 
merely intended to amuse him, and declared, that all he wished was 
to see the emperor’s counselors punished, after which he would 
return home. With his customary energy, he immediately crossed 
the river and took possession of two gates of tjie city, and confidently 
waited the issue of his movements. Kienwan was in the greatest 
consternation, and was about to commit suicide, when his confidential 
adviser suggested, that it would be better to turn monk and thus pre- 
serve his life. To strengthen this proposal, the courtier produced a 
sealed box, which he pretended was bequeathed by Hungwii, with 
injunctions only to open it in the last extremity. When the seal was 
removed, it was found to contain the robes of a priest with all the 
requisites for becoming a hdshang. The youth immediately sat down 
and was soon transformed into a bonze ; his ministers seeing this, imi- 
tated the illustrious example, and the ci-devant monarch’s statesmen 
were soon seen leaving the gates of Nanking on their w r ay to a clois- 
ter. The empress, however, could not outlive this disgrace and 
stabbed herself. The palace w'as immediately burned, and a ru- 
mor spread, that the emperor had fallen a sacrifice to the flames 
But Kienwan secretly withdrew, and was .met by a priest, w ho told 
_ 'r*OL. xt. no. xi. ?5 ; 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 


him that he had been forewarned in a dream to receive him into the 
holy brotherhood, and forthwith took him with part of his suite to a 
retired convent. 

The prince of Yen could scarcely credit this unexpected success. 
Most of the high officers came and tendered homage to their new 
sovereign, who on his part was all smiles and affability. In order to 
punish his enemies, he promised rewards to any one that would 
deliver them up, — a sanguinary procedure that caused so much misery 
and treachery, that a number of the most guilty surrendered them- 
selves and were pardoned. One doctor of the Hanlin college who 
disputed the prince’s succession, had his mouth slit from ear to ear. 
Another minister, who had irritated the usurper, was killed in 
the most ignominious manner ; beside a host of literati, who testi- 
fied considerable sympathy at the fate of those great men, and who 
suffered with them. The tyrant, whose temper was soured by this 
opposition, then turned to the harem, and killed every one, who had 
shown attachment to his nephew ; and finding the burnt skeleton of 
the empress, it was declared to be th^t of the monarch. He put it 
into a coffin and fell down before it, bewailing the loss of his nephew. 
After this exhibition of his vengeance upon his enemies, he publish- 
ed an amnesty, but many of the provincial authorities would not 
listen to the proffered grace, and chose death rather than submission 
to the new sovereign. But nothing daunted at this inauspicious 
commencement, he gave (a. d. 1404) the name of Yungloh 

(Eternal-Joy,) to his reign, and regarded himself as firmly seated 
on the throne. 

The new monarch soon perceived, that the generals who had as- 
sisted him in obtaining possession of the empire, would become dan- 
gerous to his peace if left unemployed, and he therefore immediately 
ordered them to prepare for a new campaign. In the meanwhile 
he removed his court to Shuntien fu, formerly the capital of his pa- 
trimonial principality, which henceforth, under the name of Peking, 
or the northern capital, became the metropolis of the empire. 

Some trouble having occurred in Tungking, Yungloh immediately 
constituted himself umpire, and dispatched an army to take posses- 
sion of the country, in order quietly to settle the dispute. Success 
and defeat alternately attended the imperial arms; much bloodshed 
and misery was occasioned in the country, and the natives at last 
obtained many a^signal victory over their enemies. He, however, 
went to fight the Tartars of the north, amongst whom he had pre- 
viously sown dissensions. About this time, he received an embassy 


History of the Ming Dynasty 





from Malacca and then one from Bengal, a sufficient proof of the 
fame of his exploits. After several campaigns into the desert, the 
emperor perceived the hopelessness of pursuit ; but in order to leave 
behind him a proof of his valor, he erected a pyramid to witness to the 
extent of his conquests. He returned after having spent the greater 
part of his existence in waging war, and died on reaching the fron- 
tiers in the year 1425. 

Kienwan had, in the meanwhile, been going from one place to 
another, and his existence becoming known, he attracted the jealousy 
of the usurper. The latter had him carefully watched, without 
inflicting the least injury upon him, until his name was consigned 
to oblivion and contempt. 

His son 7 ee |lMi Ilunghi, known in the hall of ancestors as 

vs “O I — 1 -'ll 

Jinlsung, had often acted as his father’s deputy, and on his accession 

to the throne published a general amnesty, but he lived too short a 
time to develop his character. His son 13 Siuente (called after 


his death ja Siuentsung) assumed the reins of government, in 
a. n. 1426. He revived the war with Cochinchina, in which the Chi- 
nese armies were usually annihilated, after having, according to the 
report of their generals, achieved the most splendid victories. He 
was, however, a lover of peace, and when his uncle endeavored to 
usurp the throne, he managed matters so adroitly, that the plot- 
ter was compelled to come of his own accord to render homage and 
confess his crime. The even tenor of his life leaves but little for his 
chroniclers to record, and he died in 1436, leaving the empire to his 
son ^ Yingtsung, whose reign was at first called ^ 
Chingtung, and afterwards ^ J|g Tienshun. 

He was a boy of eight years of age, and his mother became regent 
during his minority. Fondly attached to an eunuch of the name of 
Wangchin, the child plead hard to save his life, when about to suffer 
the punishment due to his crimes. It was during his minority, 
that the unfortunate Kienwan was discovered, and brought to court 
to undergo examination. This worthless scion of the great Ilurigwu, 
had wandered about as a vagrant from one province to the other for 
forty years, and although no accusation could now be brought 
against him, he was still looked upon as a dangerous person, and 
therefore confined within the palace, where he died unregretted and 

A portentous storm was meanwhile brewing in the north. An 
ambitious Tartar chief, of the name of Yesien, had made many incur- 


Hi story of the Ming Dynasty. 


sions into the Chinese territory, and so much enraged Wangchin, 
that he (a. d. 1450) assembled a large army to chastise him. But- 
he had forgotten to provide an effective commissariat, and when the 
troops had advanced into the desert, they found themselves destitute 
of everything. In this emergency, they were attacked by the Tar- 
tars, and completely routed ; and the young emperor himself taken 
prisoner. His wife and mother both gave up all their jewels to 
ransom Yingtsung, but Yesien disdainfully refused every offer. 
Great consternation reigned at the court ; the eunuchs were de- 
nounced as the authors of all the evils that befell the land, and some 
of them were slain in the precincts of the palace. The empress 
dowager, seeing the throne vacant, appointed prince Chin, a brother 
to the captive monarch, acting emperor, under the name of -fjr 
Kingti, who was so pleased with the possession of power, that 
when Yesien proposed to liberate the autocrat, he placed many ob- 
stacles in the way. Yingtsung, however, was by no means ambitious. 
On his return from Tartary, he willingly retired to a private station, 
and reascended the throne only on his brother’s death in 1458. 
After thus having experienced many changes of fortune, he was 
again exalted, and employed his power in waging war against the 
eunuchs. This genus of the human race seems, however, to be en- 
dowed with great natural vivaciousuess, for scarcely had one party 
been driven from the harem, when another came again into power, 
and from simple servants rose to be privy counselors. They soon 
arranged a conspiracy, and when the emperor was off his guard, 
attacked the palace, but were beaten off. The authors were capitally 
punished, and the monarch believed himself to be firmly seated on 
t.l** throne, when the hand of death closed his career in a. n. 1465. 

His son flj Chinghwa, called in the. ancestorial chronicles 
Hientsung, was a complete child of the palace, reared and 
cherished by women and eunuchs. To increase the power of the 
latter, he instituted a committee of public safety, to put down aU 
rebels, and the eunuchs were nominated members of this dread tribu- 
nal. They soon became a terror to the whole empire, and their spies 
and unexpected seizures tilled every officer with consternation. No 
censor had sufficient influence to prevail upon tjie monarch to dis- 
card these villains, and the land resounded with unheeded murmurs. 
The whole administration was in a wretched condition and no melio- 
ration could be expected from mere parasites who had not the slight- 
est claim to merit. The emperor died of grief on account of the 
death of his wife, leaving the empire in a miserable condition. 

» . 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 


Hungchi i 'jp, called after his death ^ ^ Hiautsung, oc- 
cupied himself with transfusing gold, and preparing the elixir of im- 
mortality. Some troubles with the chief of Hami engaged his atten- 
tion, and he thought that he would avoid all difficulties by prohibiting 
all intercourse with foreigners. At this prohibition, several barba- 
rians, who had come many thousands of miles over the ocean, 
grumbled exceedingly, and pointed to the valuable curiosities they 
brought to the court, and demanded a continuance of their com- 
merce. The edict was, however, put on record, and trade went on 
as heretofore, the officers being well paid for their connivance. 

The emperor, on his death-bed, deeply regretted having given heed 
to the vagaries of heretics, and left a son jES Chingte of 15 
years of age t succeed him in 1506. This young man hardly es- 
caped from the leading strings of the eunuchs, saw himself invested 
with power, which, as he could not wield, he intrusted it to the 
friends of his youth. When the high officers observed this, they 
represented to him the dangerous consequences that must ensue, 
and reminded the monarch of a comet, that had appeared to forebode 
the downfall of his reign. The youthful emperor, apprehensive of 
such a calamity, gave orders for the apprehension of the most obno- 
xious eunuchs ; but while being led to prison, their cries for mercy 
touched his heart, and he changed his purpose, reinstated them in 
his favor upon their promise of amendment, and clothed them with 
greater authority than ever. They did not forget their revenge ; all 
their enemies were dismissed from office, and the whole administra- 
tion brought under their control. They made a good use of their 
opportunities, and the empire groaned under their tyrannical sway. 
Asa natural consequence, the robbers grew daring, and on horse- 
back invaded the richest districts with impunity. A prince of the 
blood also took arms against the government, in order as he said, to 
deliver the country from the eunuchs. But he was taken prisoner 
and his whole host dispersed. At this juncture, accusations were 
brought against K i n kin the most powerful of the courtiers. A faithful 
minister by night found access to the emperor, and describing the 
villany of the favorite in the most striking colors, obtained a guard 
for his seizure. His palace was found stored with arms, his coffers 
filled with treasure, and on finding these proofs of his wickedness, 
his enemies forthwith beheaded him. Throughout the western pro- 
vinces rebellion was rife, and the emperor was obliged to send thi- 
ther large detachments to suppress the rising of his unruly subjects. 
In these attempts he was successful, and grew so fond of war, that 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 

lie himsell joined the army. But whenever the enemy approached, he 

retreated to the capital. Towards the end of his reign, another prince 

of the blood arose in arms against his authority, but his designs 

were crushed by his capture and death. From a census taken in his 

reign, it was ascertained, that China contained fifty millions of souls. 

Chingte died without children, and his cousin succeeded him in 

i.322, under the name of fall Kiatsing, known in the chronicles 
hi * a * /ip 'n 

as F Shitsung. 

Kiatsing was not at the capital when the news of his nomination 
reached him, but on taking possession of the government his first 
act was an amnesty of all political offenses. There was only one 
grandee, whom he deprived of his office, and whose goods he confis- 
cated. When quietly settled on the throne, he gave himself up to 
poetry and song, and did nothing for the benefit of his people. The 
frontiers were constantly ravaged by the Tartars; disputes also arose 
in Cochinchina, but the emperor wisely hesitated to interfere. 

The Mongols had for a long time traded in cattle with the frontier 
towns, but difficulties arising, caused by the exactions of the officers, 
their chief Yenta was so irritated that he resorted to arms. Myriads 
of peasants were driven captive into the desert, cities were burnt and 
the whole country laid waste. The marauder forced his way to the 
gates of Peking, and the helpless emperor was forced to permit them 
to hold fairs at certain times, but soon virtually annulled the per- 
mission by placing many restrictions upon the intercourse ; which 
soon caused the resumption of hostilities. 

Another enemy also appeared about this time. Some Japanese 
had in the reign of Hungwii committed piracy, and settled on the 
island ofTsungming, but their chief was finally forced to restrain his 
subjects, and pay tribute to China. Some commercial intercourse was 
however carried on by the two countries, and in 1539 an embassador 
was sent to Ningpo with a number of vessels to conclude a treaty 
for the opening of commerce. But the custom-house officers treated 
the envoy shamefully, and the irritated Japanese took signal revenge 
upon the Chinese. They were soon driven back to their ships, and 
a stipulation entered into, that henceforth only three vessels should 
come annually, and their crews not be permitted to come ashore. 
Mutual wants, however, produced a corresponding amount of smug- 
gling in the Chusan archipelago, in which the Chinese were conside- 
rably the gainers. In one instance, in a vessel sent by the king 
himself, the supercargo having paid for his goods in advance, was 
cheated out of his money, and obtaining no redress, made an inroad 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 

into the country, carrying off enough to make up his loss. The 
Japanese were, however, nearly cut off on their return, and soon re- 
appeared in large force to attack the Chinese coast. Having 
thrown the province of Shantung into consternation, they ascended 
the Yangtsz’ kiang, penetrated as far as Nanking and Suchau, and 
then turned south to Chekiang, where they took several places, every- 
where committing great ravages. Having established themselves at 
Chusan, they laid siege to Nanking. In this emergency, a woman from 
the south of China led forward a host of warriors, and kept them in 
check. Not succeeding in taking the place, they extended their 
piratical cruises to Fukien, and the east of Kwingtung, to the great 
distress of the inhabitants. Native pirates had also become numerous, 
and joined the Japanese in their maraudings. Hostilities likewise 
commenced in Corea, into which country the Japanese had pene- 
trated. Amidst all these troubles, the emperor was seeking for the 
liquor of immortality, and after a useless reign of more than forty 
years, expired in a. d. 1566. 

Lungking Jig, known in history as Mutsung, did his 

utmost to settle the tranquillity of the frontier. His own opinion 
was for permitting Yenta to pay tribute and have a trade, but the ma- 
jority of his ministers decided to refuse all intercourse. But the mo- 
narch was too wise a prince not to foresee the struggle, that must 
ensue on account of this obstinacy, and therefore acceded to a com- 
mercial treaty. He died in 1572. 

W&nli Jj|jp his successor, was only ten years of age at his ac- 
cession ; he is known under the ancestorial name of ^ Shin- 
tsung. During his minority he followed the advice of his cabinet, 
and appeared to promise well. The intercourse with western nations, 
commenced under his predecessor, became an object of solicitude. 
Mathew Ricci obtained access to the court in 1583, and presented 
a repeating watch to the young monarch, who was so taken with 
the rarity that he built a tower to keep it safe. 

Under his government the despised Niuchi, who afterwards be- 
come so formidable as the Mantchous, made themselves feared. The 
Chinese had permitted them some commercial privileges upon the 
frontier, and they every year brought a quantity of ginseng and furs 
to market. Being often quarreling among themselves, the officers 
repeatedly interfered with an high hand in their disputes. The 
injuries they then suffered were carefully remembered, and after- 
wards repaid with interest by their children. 


000 History of the Ming Dynasty. 

W.inli unwisely interfered in the internal affairs of Corea, which 
being overrun with innumerable warriors from Japan, occasioned 
much trouble to the imperialists. This war lasted more than thirty 
^ years; and although the Chinese were usually worsted, and their ge- 
nerals boasted of their victories, still the most numerous and best 
appointed armies were dispersed by a handful of the enemy. But 
when the Chinese inveigled the Japanese into negotiations, they 
gained the ascendant. The whole coast of China had become ac- 
cessible to the enemy, who often advanced for several hundred miles 
into the country, committing all kinds of excesses. To protect their 
property against such a ruthless foe, the Chinese built walls and in- 
closures along the coast, to which they retired whenever the Japan- 
ese approached. The latter were inclined to make lasting peace, 
but were always thwarted by the treachery of the Chinese envoys. 
Wanli, however, prevailed upon the Japanese king Taikosama to 
receive the investiture of his realm from a Chinese commissioner, 
which was thought to be a sure sign of a lasting peace; but reiterated 
treachery called forth renewed hostilities. Taikosama dying in 1598, 
the martial spirit died with him, the Japanese armies retired from 
Corea, and their fleets from China, and that country returned to its 
ancient limits. Wanli, to bring the last peace offering, in 1600, exe- 
cuted two relations of Taiko, and stuck their heads upon the gates 
of Peking, in order to show compassion towards distant foreigners. 

Ricci, in the meanwhile, preached at the court and made several 
presents to the emperor. The Tribunal of Rites reported upon the 
same, and issued the following edict: “Europe has no connection 
with us, and does not receive our laws. The images of the God of 
heaven and* of a virgin, which Ricci offers up as tribute are of 
no value. He also has presented a bag which contains some 
bones of genii, without considering, that the sien when ascending 
on high take their bones with them. Let no such novelties be intro- 
duced into the palace, lest some evil might befall us, and let Ricci 
be sent back to his country.” This rescript was put on record, and 
Ricci remained at court. A few years afterwards the president of 
the same Tribunal praised the services of the European missionaries 
for their great skill in astronomy, and recommended to employ them 
in this department. 

A new enemy appeared on the frontier of China. We have al- 
ready referred to the Niuchi, a small tribe of Tartars that had been 
trampled upon by the Chinese. The officers who were sent to the 
eastern frontiers plundered and killed their merchants, after having 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 


thrown every obstacle in the way of the trade. Not satisfied with 
this treatment, they destroyed the habitations of some Tartar colo- 
nists, carried the people into the interior of Liautung, where those 
who had escaped the sword died of the winter’s cold, and of starva- 
tion. Since all this was done with impunity, Wanli sent more officers, 
who destroyed all the houses near the borders and drove the Niuchi, 
now called the Mantchous, to despair. They had hitherto been a scat- 
tered nation, but were united under Tienming, their first chief, who 
in 1618, assumed the style and title of emperor, having but a few 
naked savages under his banners. His father had been murdered 
by the officers, and he swore that he would sacrifice 200,000 Chinese 
to his names, and he kept his dreadful oath. He first attacked the 
city, where the cattle fair was generally held, and took it by storm ; 
his warriors seemed to be so resistless that the Chinese generals des- 
paired of opposing him themselves, and called in the aid of their 
loyal vassals the Portuguese. At that time Gonsalves Teixera was 
embassador, or rather tribute-bearer, at Peking, and as the emperor 
liberally furnished the means, a body of 200 Portuguese and 200 
western Asiatics were equipped and sent to the capital. Each of them 
had a servant and plenty of money, so that the whole cavalcade ap- 
peared more a like gay equipage than a real army. When they reached 
Peking the officers of Canton, doubting the policy of permitting such 
access to the court, bribed them who had suggested this measure, to 
dissuade the emperor from employing the barbarians, and thus was 
this little band under the valiant captains Cordier and Del Capo led 
back to Macao. 

Tienming, tired of war, proposed a peace, but the imperial court 
answered by a rescript, ordering the extermination of all barbarians. 
Nothing was heard but extermination — the fashionable word of the 
present warlike times. The Mantchous gave up all hope of nego- 
tiating with such a people, and took possession of the whole of Liau- 
tung, from whence they made inroads to the gates of Peking. The 
terrific generals sent out to annihilate them disappeared like gigantic 
shadows at the approach of night, and notwithstanding all edicts to 
the contrary, the barbarians grew more powerful every day, and 
would no longer hear to any treaty. Wanli could not bear these 
reverses, and losing his beloved wife, he died of a broken heart in 
the year 1620. 

His son ^ H Taichdng, called in the chronicles ^ 
Kwangtsung, promised well at his accession, and exerted himself to 
put government affairs in order. These exertions brought on a 




History of the Ming Dynasty. 


malady, and having drank the liquor of immortality, he died instant- 
ly. His son, a diffident youth of 16 years, whose reign is called 
X Tienki > and his ancestorial name ^ Hitsung, ascend- 
ed the throne in 1621. He did nothing to blame or praise, and had 
the happiness of seeing a rebellion which extended through Sz’chuen, 
Kweichau and Yunnan, entirely quelled. The officers on the east- 
ern frontiers continued to irritate the Mantchous. The governor 
sent a haughty letter to their prince, the successor of Tienming, 
claiming divine honors for his emperor. The rude chief, exasperated 
at this presumption, complained of the haughtiness of a fellow mor- 
tal, and asked redress for various injuries, with a request to establish 
an exchange of the respective commodities of their countries. To 
this remonstrance an evasive answer was returned, and the Man- 
tchous resolved upon an appeal to arms. But Tienki did not behold 
this catastrophe, dying in 1627, when still very young. 

Tsungching jjj|^ his successor, known in the ritual as 
Hwditsung, was a great friend of letters, but proved quite unable 
to face the gathering storm. All resistance against the Tartars vva 3 
in vain, and Taitsung, their leader, in an edict demanded uncondi- 
tional submission to his arms. The Chinese, perceiving that he was 
in earnest and could no longer be driven back by words, began to 
bless the rising sun, and fail in allegiance to their own master. In 
this emergency, one of the best ministers advised peace at all risks, 
but was beheaded in the streets as a traitor. Taitsung, becoming more 
and more sure of winning the prize, finally yielded to the represen- 
tations of his nobles, as well as of the Chinese who had come over to 
his side, to adopt, in 1635, the title of emperor of China, and to give 
the name of Ta Tsing, i. e. Great Purity, to his dynasty. The Chi- 
nese however, might have still resisted, and successfully, if their 
country had not been convulsed by internal feuds. One of them a 
cruel monster, Li Tsz’ching, devastated and pillaged the central pro- 
vinces, and arrived at last at the gates of Peking. The eunuchs 
opened to him, and the emperor was still dreaming of the great vic- 
tories obtained by his generals, when a servant brought the news of 
the surrender of the city and palace. Instead of meeting the foe like 
a man, he put his harem to death, one of his daughters only escap- 
ing, and then cowardly hung himself. In his girdle was found an ac- 
cusation of himself and a request to spare the people. Thus departed 
t he last of the Ming emperors in 1644. 

Wu Sankwei, a relation of the imperial family, was at this time 
stationed on the frontiers to defend them against the Mantchous. 


History of the. Ming Dynasty. 


When he heard that a robber had taken possession of the tin one, his 
indignation exceeded all bounds, and taking 7000 Tartars into his 
pay, he marched to meet the enemy. In a hard fought battle victory 
decided in his favor, and getting another reinforcement of 60,000 
Mantchous and Mongols, he pressed to exterminate the monster Li. 
In this endeavor he succeeded, but wishing to send home his guests, 
they flatly refused to leave, and in a strong force marched to the 
capital, where they were received as deliverers of the country. When 
in possession of the nine gates, the Mantchou chiefs held a coun- 
cil ; Taitsung having died, they appointed his nephew, a child of 
seven years as their leader, and proclaimed him emperor of China 
in 1644, under the title of |||| y£} Shunchi, or Obedient-Rule. 
From this period the reigning dynasty dates its sway. 

A young man heir to the Ming throne, who held his court at Nan- 
king was supported by a number of patriotic Chinese, but weakened 
himself in idle intrigues and revels. Other princes of the blood in 
Chekiang, in Fukien, and Kwangtung, successively defended them- 
selves bravely, and were one after the other overcome, so that in 
1650, there remained scarcely a single individual to oppose the Man- 
tchous. The rover Koxinga and his father also caused the Tsing 
emperors much trouble, but no well organized effort was made by 
the people to reinstate their native sovereigns, a sign that they did 
not have a very hearty loyalty to their persons, or feel that they 
would lose much by the change. 

Turn we now to examine the chronicles, (68 volumes there are of 
them) from which the preceding sketch has been drawn. The 
Ming Shi was commenced by order of Kanghi in 1696, and appears 
to have been finished in 1715, by a number of learned men, whose 
names are given in the introduction. And as there can be a great 
deal done in 20 years, especially when many scholars set to work, 
there is every probability that the book contains a great deal. The 
first part is a history of the dynasty in nineu m chapters, as we have 
already given it. Then follow seventy-seven miscellaneous chapters, 
containing among other things, an account of astronomy and the 
elements, of chronology, geography, hydraulics, ceremonials, music 
and dress, choice of officers, official rank, military affairs, punish- 
ments, arts and sciences, &c. Nine chapters describe the kings, 
ministers and household officers. Finally there are 250 chapters 
containing miscellaneous notices of the lives of the empresses, queens, 
and members of the imperial harem, the princes and princesses royal, 
notices of a host of scholars, retired individuals, statesmen, gran- 



Hi story of the Ming Dynasty 

dees, and officers of all grades, traitroous ministers, thieves (Li Sz’ 
ching is placed first), and chiefs of the aborigines in China, inter- 
course with Japan, Lewchew, Camboja, Siam, and various Malay 
states, Sumatra and Java, with the Franks and the Dutch, with Ben- 
gal, Mongolia, Tartary, Medina, and other places. 

In the history of the kings, we have a kind of biography of the mo- 
narchs. Hungwu’s origin and adventures are minutely detailed, and 
as they have already been noticed (see vol. VII., page 353), we pass 
to Kienwan, who was distinguished for his filial piety. He refused 
to appear in his robes of state for three years after his grandfather’s 
death, or to eat anything but congee, in order to honor his illustrious 
predecessor. Whether he really kept his vow, we do not know, but a 
prince who was so punctilious in the observance of rites, could most 
cruelly persecute his uncles from mere jealousy. Of Hunghi, the 
historiographer says, “he honored heaven, acted up to his principles, 
was simple and sincere, virtuous, extensively learned, dignified and 
martial. An ornament to the sages, and fully versed in filial piety. 
His youth was marked by a solemn deportment, a fondness of retire- 
ment, and exactitude of word and deed. He exercised himself in 
archery ; he was fond of scholars, and was never wearied in convers- 
ing with them.” 

A translation of a short passage will give an idea of the style. “ In 
the first year of Lungking, the first month on the second day, the 
emperor sacrificed at the great temple. After the lapse of some days 
he officiated at the Tuitsung ming hall. In the second month, he 
presented his offerings to the gods of the land. About this time he 
raised the concubine Chin to the rank of empress. Chin Thin, vice- 
president of the Board of Civil Office, was created director of the 
Board of Rites, and minister of the Wanyuen hall (the same rank 
that Kishen held), whilst Chang Kiiching, vice-president of the Board 
of Rites became vice-president of the Board of Civil Office, and mi- 
nister of the eastern hall, being also created a counselor of war. 
Sacrifices were offered in the Tuitsung yu chi palace. The robbers 
attacked Kwangning, and general Wang Chitau defeated them.” 

The history is told throughout in this edifying manner, and if a 
sinologue was never before plagued with headache, we think he can 
have a touch of it by patiently perusing these annals, and we safely 
recommend them for their soporific qualities. The interminable 
intrigues and cabals are minutely described, and if Taukwang has 
no better court than the Ming princes, he must be one of the most 
unhappy men in the world. A host of women, of course all of them 


Hi story uj the Ming Dynasty. 


houris, with their relations and the eunuchs contest precedence, and 
strive for the advancement of their creatures ; a crowd of syco- 
phants press around the throne, and blacken the character of the 
most deserving ; princes of the blood with fair princesses, and thou- 
sands of officers besieging the palace, all defaming each other’s cha- 
racter, and stepping into office over their fellows, play their part in 
the drama, and render the whole work to a foreign reader as tire- 
some as a Punch and Judy after the fair. The centre is the great 
emperor, who is looked to decide every quarrel and settle every claim. 
Such are the general outlines of the history of Ming, and we guess, 
ttha when another dynasty shall drive the present rulers from the 
throne, the tale to be told of Tsing will vary but little. 

In the chapter on astronomy, we find notes on the solar and lunar 
eclipses, the phases of sun and moon, and a general account of the 
heavenly bodies, with such a host of constellations that even Herschel 
would fain confess, that he had never discovered half so many. But 
the truth is, that the Chinese having followed their Mohammedan 
guides, found themselves out of reckoning, and therefore changed 
the calendar, according to the suggestions of the Jesuits. The pre- 
sent detail contains the journal kept by the imperial astronomers for 
more than two centuries, and a description of many things found 
in a nautical almanac. 

The next part treats upon the five elements, water, fire, wood, 
metal, and earth. The reader is perhaps curious to know what they 
have to do with an historical volume. The mystery is soon explain- 
ed, wher^ it is known, that these substances are by Chinese historians 
supposed to rule the world, and by their mutual relations, their hos^ 
tile positions, and their growth and decrease, occasion all the revolu*- 
tions that occur in this sublunary world. But the great emperor, 
when he chooses, can influence them by his virtuous conduct, and 
avert their malevolent influence. If he on the other hand is refrac* 
tory, these fearful engines of pantheistical power are let loose by 
heaven upon the country. Consequently, the object of this part of 
the history is to give an account of all the devastations occasioned by 
the exuberance of water and fire. This is intelligible enough ; but 
what harm can wood do? We must tell the reader, that this element, 
according to the chroniclers, exists in the life-giving principle, and 
in its production of monsters, as a sheep with eight legs and two 
heads, or a millet stalk growing to the height of a tree, exhibits its 
malignant intentions. As for metal, it is a most wonderful principle, 
and does its mischief, principally by absenting itself : — France dun- 

Hi story of the Ming Dynasty. 



mg the time of the revolution, and the United States at the present 
moment, are illustrations of the sad disasters ensuent upon its depar- 
ture. So it was also in older times in the central empire, though 
assign ates, hills, and notes never could here assume the reality of the 
pure element, though frequently attempting to do so. Amongst the 
instances mentioned there is one similar to an event that look place 
at Bencoolen, when the white ants there got to the treasury chest 
and ate up so many dollars, that the hon. E. I. Company sent out a 
bundle of files to their servants, with w'hich to blunt the teeth of 
these destroyers. It was in the eighth year of Hungwu, somewhere 
about four hundred years ago, that all the gold and silver in the im- 
perial treasury took flight. Now, patient reader, remember that your 
humble servant has not coined this story, but merely translates a pas- 
sage from the grave historian of the Ming, and if thou shouldest appear 
incredulous, know then, that this flight has taken place, from of old, 
for riches have wings as good as any eagle, and that the historian of 
Taukwang’s reign will have to record a similar miracle. About the 
same time, we are told that a bell in the palace struck of its own 
accord and then burst ; and not long after streams of light issued 
from all the shields and spears in the arsenal, with many other 
portentous omens relating to this element of metal. 

We now descend from this celestial transcendentalism to terrene 
matters, and have a verbal treatise on geography — for it is full of 
names. The territory over which the Ming princes ruled was not 
so large by far as the possessions of this dynasty; there pertained no 
foreign countries to their crown, and all their attempts to extend 
the frontiers proved fruitless. The Tartars retained their indepen- 
dence, the Cochinchinese struck off the yoke, and towards the con- 
fines of Yunnan the country was rather curtailed. 

The chapters on hydraulics are interesting, and when we reckon 
up the successive devastations occasioned by the inundations of the 
Yellow River, which are carefully recorded, we are astounded at the 
terrible invasions of “ China’s Sorrow.” Millions of families have 
found in it a watery grave ; dykes at which myriads were at work for 
years together, have been swept away in a few minutes, and the work 
of man set at naught and ruined to show his utter impotence. We 
are furnished with an account of the canals dug during the dynasty, 
which is as instructive as any in the work, and shows what the go- 
vernment did to promote the welfare of the nation at large. Wher- 
ever there is level ground, through it canals are cut, and the pea- 
santry imitate the works of the government, in their sluices for 

1842. History of the Ming Dynasty. 007 

irrigating their fields. In this respect China resembles Holland, and 
the water-communications are so multiplied, that the construction of 
good roads is entirely forgotten. Labor being cheap, the means of 
subsistence easily obtained, and the population immense, works 
of this description are executed more cheaply than in any other 

Succeeding these remarks upon the elements, the historians of 
Ming have given us long disquisitions upon the ceremonies then in 
fashion, told us what music was most esteemed at court, and added 
sundry remarks, valuable to a professor of the kotau, upon the most 
appropriate genuflections when coming into the presence of celestial 
majesty. After these remarks, we seem to have fallen upon a tailor’s 
journal, or the diary of some Chinese Pepys, in which the cut of his 
imperal majesty’s robes, the successive fashions of empresses, cour- 
tiers, and dignitaries of all degrees, and the costumes of the people 
at large, are all described. It would seem that the garb of that pe- 
riod was more becoming than that of our degenerate age. First, 
the dress was so wide that the wearer looked like a lord-chancellor 
on the woolsack ; and the sleeves were large, and served for pock- 
ets ; then they wore a square cap, and lastly they did not shave their 
head and make monkeys of themselves, but tied all their long hair 
up in a top-knot. 

The appointment of officers was similar to that which obtains at 
present, so that the chapters upon this subject require only a transi- 
tory notice. An idea is very general abroad that merit alone leads 
to office in China, and that the successful candidate at examinations 
has alone a claim to promotion. But there are several other things 
which affect a man’s eligibility; sons of meritorious officers and 
noblemen have the first claim, after whom come successful gradu- 
ates, who are usually appointed to be district teachers and professors; 
then assistants in the offices, if recommended by their superiors. 
These last are, in one sense, the real rulers of the country, inasmuch 
as being accustomed to transact business, their aid is indispensable 
to the actual incumbent, while in his name they often oppress the 
people. Last not least are wealthy individuals who buy their offices. 

In the detail of governmental departments, we have extracts of the 
Ta Ming Hwui tien, or Statistics of the Ming, a valuable document 
to the historian. The revenues of the court, amounted on an average 
to 40 millions of taels, besides an adequate quantity of rice, which is 
tar below the present income. Comparing the present income with 
these quotations from ancient revenue, it is evident, that China has 

History of the Ming Dynasty. 



never been so populous and so well cultivated as at present, and that 
the riches possessed by the nation are now four times as large as 

The machinery of government adopted by the Ming was in its 
principal features retained by the Mantchous. The personal house- 
hold of the emperor appears to have been much larger that at pre- 
sent, but on the other hand the retinue of the imperial relations was 
nothing to what it is now, when more than six thousand royal princes 
and princesses are to be found in the precincts of the palace. The 
Ming emperors sent these scions into the provinces, and thereby oc- 
casioned much trouble. What would have become of China, if the 
Mantchous had adopted the same plan ! Nothing proves so much the 
profound prudence of the foreign rulers, than their abstaining en- 
tirely from favoring their own race, and keeping the hereditary no- 
bility near the imperial abode under the surveillance of the monarch 

As early as the reign of Hungwu, an account was made of the 
productive industry of each family, which was made to pay an in- 
come tax, and also to furnish a certain number of men either for the 
military service or the forced labor of the state. They were allowed 
to commute this demand by a certain sum, and the average annually 
paid was three taels per household. After Hungwu was firmly seat- 
ed on the throne, these taxable families amounted to 16,500,000, 
notwithstanding the long war carried on against the Mongols. But 
they decreased under his successors, so low at one time as nine mil- 
lions, a conclusive proof of the deteriorating state of the country. 
In this system of taxation the Ming princes were as clever as were 
the ministers of Lewis XIV., and we presume, that Colbert might 
even have learnt much from them. 

We are told that Hungwu appointed the harbors of Ningpo, 
Tsiuenchau (Chinchew), and Kwangchau for the reception of vessels 
coming to bring tribute from distant countries, (people who inno- 
cently supposed they merely came to “catch a little profit” in the 
way of trade), and who were therefore permitted to carry on com- 
merce. Some of these tribute-bearers were also allowed to set up a 
shop to the capital. These regulations underwent many successive 
alterations, and foreign trade was at one time confined to Fukien 

The emperors ordered that every article of consumption must be 
brought to court from the provinces. Thus there were districts bound 
to furnish the tiles for the imperial buildings, others the iron, cop- 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 609 

per, and other metals, with silks and precious stones, so that there 
was no necessity for laying out much silver. At the commence- 
ment of Hungwu’s reign, the precious metals ceased to circulate, and 
the emperor issued bank-notes to provide for this deficiency. Their 
value was soon reduced to nothing, and cash were cast, which has 
continued to this day to be the only coin in the empire. 

To protect the sacred person of the emperor a large body-guard 
was maintained. But like Yishan’s army at Canton, the whole host 
disappeared in the hour of danger, leaving none to defend the mo- 
narch in the time of need. The Chinese autocrats had standing 
armies long before the princes of Europe. In some of these hosts, if 
we are to believe the record, a single division amounted to 230,000 
men, but in not a single instance could they be kept together. The 
pay and provisions soon fell short, and of course every body went 
home, leaving the officers with a few of their retainers alone in the 
field. Nor were these regiments able to fight for any length of time; 
if they gained the victory, they spread themselves to plunder; if they 
were worsted every man thought only of his own safety. And so 
it happened that the sons of heaven were usually destitute of an ef- 
fective force, and when soldiers were most wanted, they were least to 
be had; so that amid a teeming population the emperor was almost 
defenseless. Yet the army lists were carefully kept, and a de- 

scription of all the corps stationed along the frontiers is given, who 
were engaged in the amiable duty of exterminating barbarians. A 
maritime and river navy existed, and the former was increased, on 
account of the Japanese war; still it fell far below the present state 
of the Chinese men of war — which are always invincible, except 
when they come in contact with an enemy. 

The arms of the Chinese were similar to those at present used; it 
was under the reign of the latter emperors that cannons and match- 
locks became general. The first attempt at firing the new cast can- 
non proved fatal to the life of one Portuguese and several Chinese, 
and those engines of war fell into some disrepute. However one of 
the Jesuits mended the matter, by giving to each of the guns the 
name of a saint, and blessing them in regular Chinese style. 

We have two volumes upon the kings, and their genealogy. Each 
of the princes of the blood received a small government in the pro- 
vinces, where they promulgated their race. As Hungwu had a large 
number of sons, and each of them received his own rule, their num- 
ber grew fast, and the historian has retained the lineage of each with 
a correctness that would put our heralds to the blush. Descend- 


( < 


610 History of tin Ming Dynasty. Nov. 

ants of the Ming dynasty were alive a few years ago, but in misera- 
ble circumstances. Taukwang, however, could not bear their pre- 
sence and killed them, though we believe that the race is not yet 
extinct. The people, however, care nothing about them, nor would 
they make an effort to restore them. 

The account of men and things commences with the biography of 
empresses, queens, and maids of honor, and so numerous are they that 
even the Grand Turk cannot boast of a more formidable array of 
bright eyes and small feet. When Hungwu was crowned, his faith- 
ful partner, the wife of his youth, shared with him the high honor, 
hut he prohibited her and all her court from interfering in the busi- 
ness of government. But this interdict was of no avail, and every 
beautiful mouth, if once in the monarch’s favor, had something to 
say upon the administration, and to speak for a dear friend or first 
cousin. Some of those who shared the throne were of low extrac- 
tion, their beauty being their only recommendation, but they seldom 
failed to raise their relations to high dignities. China, like all other 
lands, has had her clever women, and if we do not hear about Elisa- 
beths, Catharines, or Maria Theresas, it is owing to the modesty 
of the daughters of Han ; some of them, as Wu Tsetien, related in 
our vol. III., page 543, have proved themselves able to do anything 
to effect their end. 

Some of the statesmen noticed were men of the first stamp, who 
well earned their renown, especially those who fought with Hung- 
wu. There are also literary characters, celebrated for their know- 
ledge of Chinese lore and the excellency of their administration, who 
were raised to office. Some of these biographies would read well if 
translated. The life of a person that wishes to climb high in office 
is full of care and trouble. In no station is he secure against the 
malice of his fellow officers ; from his entrance upon office to the 
last day of his life, he must intrigue, cheat, and fawn, suffer oppres- 
sion and oppress others. The ups and downs in life of these gran- 
dees furnish many an instructive lesson, and show the slippery ground 
on which they constantly tread. Behold the powerful minister of state, 
who by his unscrupulous conduct has finally distanced all his com- 
petitors, and is seated at the pinnacle of power, the premier of the 
realm, the delegated possessor of more power than almost any other 
mortal on the earth. Years of intrigue have furrowed his cheeks, 
and there he sits at the council-board grey headed, enjoying his in- 
fluence and indemnifying himself for all the trouble he has had, in 
arriving to such a prominent station. Unfortunately, he forgets a 


History oj thr Ming Dynasty 


single ceremony at one of the proscribed sacrifices. His inferiors, 
envious of his good fortune, bring forward an accusation ; he is ad- 
judged either to lose his pay or his rank, and the man who may have 
in the morning received the adulation of thousands, sits down in the 
evening a clerk in one of the offices, there to redeem his errors. 
Against these vicissitudes of fortune no functionary is secure, and 
they are so common that the fall of the highest statesmen, for the 
most trivial reason occasions no sensation at all. Others follow and 
experience the same fate, until either a narrow minded man with few 
talents comes by some good luck, or having outlived his competitors, 
to high honors, and by the common consent of his fellow officers is 
left to enjoy his dignity, since all can draw advantage from his 

Three volumes are occupied with an account of native chiefs, who 
ruled over the aborigines in Hunian, Yunnan and other provinces, 
and who either incorporated their country with, or resisted the go- 
vernment. Their territory at that time appears to have been exten- 
sive, but the incroachments of the Chinese population upon their 
mountain fastnesses have been such during the last two centuries, 
as to make one believe, that they will be extinct within less than 
another 200 years. 

The last three volumes are taken up with a detail of the foreign 
relations of China; the intercourse with Mongolia, Turkestan, and 
Independent Tartary occupying the largest portion. This part of 
the work opens with a description of Japan, the inroads of that peo- 
ple, and the final triumph of the imperial arms. There are several 
edicts addressed to the king by heaven’s son, in which he dilates 
upon the great benefits Japan has received from China, and the ne- 
cessity of his bowing a humble vassal of the Inner Kingdom. It is 
however remarkable, that no allusion is made to the priests who 
enriched the Japanese with the literature of Han, and laid the foun- 
dation for its present civilization. 

The countries that come next under consideration are Lewchew, 
Manila, Moluccas, and some other lands or nations, whose names 
it is impossible to recognize. The Lewchew islands appear to have 
been as civilized in the middle ages as they are at present, and to 
have kept up a steady intercourse with China. What a contrast is 
there in the state of civilization in the eastern and western islands 
of the Pacific; yet these amiable people are idolaters to this day, 
whilst the savages of many an isle west of them have embraced 
Christianity ! 


History of the Ming Dynasty. 


The native states of Linjonia sent tribute-bearers at various times 
to court. During Wanli’s reign some Chinese men-ot-war were cast 
on the coasts of the island, and found the Franks in possession. They 
were however well treated, and sent back to their country accom- 
panied by some Dominican friars. Our author tells us, that these 
Franks got possession of the island by warily asking for a piece of 
territory as large as a cow’s hide would cover, which they then cut 
into long pieces and inclosed a large tract of land, and this they 
claimed as their own in virtue of their agreement. 

Omitting all further notices of the intercourse carried on with 
islands south of Lutjonia, and the Moluccas, as well as that with Bor- 
neo, Malacca, Camboja, and India, we pass to what the historian says 
of European nations. The Franks live in the neighborhood of Malac- 
ca, but up to the time of Chinte they are not mentioned ; they drove 
away the king of Malacca, and sent an embassador to court, one cap- 
tain Mot and others, in 1519, who brought the produce of their coun- 
try as a tribute offering. They lingered when ordered to depart, 
and began to rob and plunder, and even ate little children. The 
emperor, who kept two of this race with him, learned their language 
as an amusement. At this act two censors became indignant, and 
one of them sent in a memorial, advising that they should not be 
allowed to send any more tribute to the court, until they had rein- 
stated the raja of Malacca in his dignity. The other said, “ that they 
were a dangerous set of knaves, skillful in holding arms, and the 
shrewdest of all the foreigners. They had entered Canton last year 
with a large vessel, and the roar of their guns had shaken the earth 
about the provincial city. Now they had found their way to the 
capital, and were going on trading as fast as they could; but if there 
was not an end put to their proceedings, the south of China would be 
soon involved in a bloody war. These and other considerations pre- 
vailed on the court to adopt measures for their expulsion. Koyung 
attacked them in 1524, took two of their ships, and beheaded thirty- 
five individuals. After taking this signal revenge, the emperor re- 
solved upon casting cannon according to the model of the captured 
guns. There was only one obstacle in the way of making these fire- 
arms effective, and this was, that the Chinese soldiers were unable 
to handle them. Undaunted by this reverse, the Franks pitched their 
tents and took possession of some parts of the country. The go- 
vernor of Canton even went so far in his partiality towards these fo- 
reigners as to petition the emperor, to allow them to trade, because 
both the public and private resources of the province depended upon 

J 842. 

History of the Ming Dynasty. 

61 :J 

foreign commerce. Since that time the Franks entered Hiangsh^n, 
and settled themselves at Macao. In 1550, the governor of Canton 
prohibited the foreign trade, and the consequence was that these 
robbers, as the Franks are termed, proceeded to Fukien ; but they suf- 
fered a signal defeat near Chaungan, the western district 

of that province, and ninety-six of their leaders were beheaded by 
the victorious Chinese commander. 

In ancient times the southern nations such as the Siamese, Java- 
nese, Cambojans, &x., came to Canton to carry on their trade. But 
the Franks soon frightened the other foreigners so much, that they 
moved away and left them in possession of the territory. They built 
a large church, much to the annoyance of loyal Chinese, who again 
and again petitioned for their expulsion. In the meanwhile, their 
trade increased at an enormous rate, everybody stood in awe of 
them, and though the authorities openly prohibited their stay in the 
country, they privately favored them. About this time the Portu- 
guese came and settled in Macao. They first worshiped Budha, 
and then adopted the religion of the God of heaven. When they 
trade, says the author, they count by their fingers. Though engaged 
in transactions amounting to thousands, they do not draw up any writ- 
ten engagements. When they swear they point to heaven, and never 
perjure themselves. 

The Dutch, called the red haired nation, we are told, are large of 
stature, the hair of the head, beard, and eyebrows is red, and their 
feet remarkably long. When they heard of the progress the Franks 
had made they took Batavia, attacked them at Manila, apd then came 
to Macao, spying about and devising mischief, but such good 
guard was kept, that they neither could get on shore, nor send a 
tribute-bearer to the capital. When they were in this dilemma, there 
came a traitorous Fukien man and told thepi to proceed to Chfing- 
chau. Thither they bent their course, and set themselves down on 
the Pescadors, where they met a roguish negotiater, who promised 
them access to the court, and the honor of sending up tribute, if they 
would pay down 30,000 taels. This sum they discharged in kind, 
giving him swords, wines, cloth and sundries, and he went his way 
with these bribes. Shortly afterwards Chin, an eloquent man was 
sent to them, who talked friendly and tried to prevail upon them to 
leave the station, which they would not do. In the meanwhile, the 
governor of Fukien issued prohibitory edicts, threatening with death 
every native who dared to supply them with provisions, gut the 
traitorous natives, unmindful of their loyalty, carried on a trade. The 



Chinese Kidnappers. 


Hollanders had in the meanwhile built a city at one of the Pescadors, 
and the governor perceiving this, and also aware, that they had 
erected fortifications on Formosa, permitted them to carry on com- 
merce under the condition of leaving the Pescador islands, which 
they did in 1624. But the Chinese functionaries having obtained 
their end, refused them the boon, and the Dutch reoccupied the 
Panghu, seized upon 600 fishing smacks, and forced the sailors to 
bring stones, and other materials to assist in building a new city. 
The officers at Amoy beheaded several tens of their prisoners, cheat- 
ed them in the bargain, and prevailed upon the Dutch to level the 
fortifications and to remove to another place. They kept firm pos- 
session of Formosa, and would not move from thence. The Chinese 
were also degenerate enough to enter into commercial speculations 
with them. Their principal strength is in their huge vessels and 
large guns which smash stone walls to pieces, and in their black 
slaves, who can walk upon the sea as if it were dry land. They wor- 
ship the God of heaven, and the produce of their country consists 
of amber, cornelian stones, glass, velvet and woolens. 

Art. IV. Particulars regarding a party of Chinese seized and 

imprisoned for having been engaged in kidnapping at Chusan. 
Our readers are already aware of the efforts which have been made 
by the Chinese authorities, to induce the people to endeavor to kid- 
nap their enemies as opportunity offered. They are also acquainted 
with many of the results of those efforts, — such as the seizure and 
imprisonment of Mr. Stanton, captain Anstruther, and others. The 
treatment which some of these captives received at the hands of the 
Chinese, as Mrs. Noble, sergeant Campbell, It. Douglas, and others, 
in being thrust into bags, forced into cages, or closely pinioned, as 
our readers already know, places the inhumanity of their captors in 
a very unfavorable light. But it should be observed, in order that 
these cases may be fairly judged, that there does not seem to have 
been any extraordinary harshness used towards these foreign prison- 
ers above that which is inflicted upon native prisoners, who have no 
money to bribe their jailers, although it is natural to suppose much 
greater irritation was felt against the former than the latter. Some- 
thing i» known likewise of the measures that have been adopted to 


1 84;’ 

Chinese Kidnappers. 


check that practice. Many, almost all of those who have been the 
agents of the government in kidnapping, have escaped with impuni- 
ty. The offense was a very grave, though it must be confessed, not 
a very surprising one for Chinese ‘braves’ to commit, and might 
have been punished, in the first, and every succeeding instance, with 
severity. For a long time, however, the offenders went unpunished ; 
at length some were seized and imprisoned ; and finally a few were 
executed, being either shot or hung. 

One party of these stealers of men was seized near Tinghfii, at 
Chusan, on the 9th of last May. The British authorities had been 
looking out for these men a long time. Among them were two bro- 
thers — ringleaders of the gang — one called Ta Papau, and the other 
Sifiu Papau. We suppose these were fictitious names. At length, 
pretty good evidence was brought to head-quarters, that one of these 
fellows was lodging in a house seven miles from Tinghai, with about 
twenty comrades; that they had that day, the 8th of May, been cele- 
brating a feast, and carousing together ; and that one of them had 
been seen at a temple, wearing a blue-button and a fox-tail, which 
had lately been conferred on him for his kidnapping, stealing arms, 
&,c., &c. As the informants were ready to act as guides, the op- 
portunity was not to be lost. Accordingly, early on the morning of 
the 9th, a party of soldiers, under the command of an officer, started 
for the above-named house. Our informant accompanied that party. 

They reached the place unobserved; and having surrounded the 
house, burst open the door and entered. There they found some 
twenty villains, who tried to escape. Matchlocks were also found 
and taken; and last, but not least, he of the blue-buttoned cap and 
fox-tail. The men, having been bound, were carried off, twenty-four 
in all. One, on trying to escape, was shot. 

On examination, the leader of the gang was found to be Siau Pa- 
pau, and among his followers was a son of Ta Papau. Having been 
detained at Chusan, these unfortunate men were put on board ship 
and brought down to Hongkong, were they were lodged in prison, 
and remained till the 7th instant, when, in consequence of the treaty, 
they were set at liberty. The number brought to Hongkong was, 
we believe, only twenty-two, and of these two died in prison. A 
free passage on board ship was offered them back to Chusan; they, 
however, preferred to go overland via Canton, and at their own ex- 
pense. A recent attempt has been made to kidnap, since the sign- 
ing of the treaty. But this must have been done, we presume, by 
persons unacquainted with the regulations, recently agreed upon for 
peace and friendly intercourse. 


Portrait of Chuenhiu. 


Art. V. Portrait of Chuenhiu, one of the ancient sovereigns 
of China. 

Chuenhiu, Fuhi, Shinnung, Hw4ngti, Yau and Shun, are the five 
emperors; and with them, as one dynasty, Shauhau, Chuenhiu, and 
Ku — his immediate predecessor and successor, — are usually classed 
with the five emperors ; and their names, on chronological records, 
are placed immediately before those of Ydu and Shun. The three 
collectively reigned 240 years — the first occupying the throne 84, and 
the second and third each 78 years — which period terminated b. c. 


Topography of Shansi. 


2435, or about a century before the flood. It is in vain to speculate 
on the Chinese chronology of those early times. All their records 
must be fabulous or traditional, and of little value. 

In the portraits, the artist has contrived to exhibit a gradual im- 
provement in physiognomy, costume, &c., quite in harmony with what 
might be supposed to be the actual improvement of society. In 
their writings, however, the native historians are so lavish of praises, 
and attribute so many great and useful inventions to each of these 
patriarchs, that their respective claims to authorship are made to 
clash with each other. 

Chuenhiu — “ the eminent and noble ” — was born in Sz’- 

chuen, and succeeded his father Shauhau at the age of twenty ; began 
the exercise of royal authority in Chili, not far from Peking ; 
but built his capital in Shantung. He was a worshiper of — or one 
who offered sacrifices to — the Most High — i. e. _j^ ^ hidng 
Shdng Ti. He died at the age of 97. 

Art. VI. Topography of Shansi; situation and boundaries of the 
province; its area and population; its subdivisions, mountains, 
rivers, lakes, plains, productions, Spc. 

Though one of the smaller divisions of the empire, Shansi is yet 
no mean province. In it the progenitors of the black haired race 
built their habitations, laid the foundations of the Central Kingdom, 
and commenced a succession of celestial dynasties. It is situated 
between latitutes 35° 15' and 42° 10' N-; and between longitudes 
0 50 and 6 30' W. of Peking, — reckoning from the extreme 

points on the Chinese maps. It is bounded, on the east of Chili and 
Honan; on the south, by Hbn!in ; on the west by Shensi; and on 
the north by Chahar in Mongolia. The whole western, and half of 
the southern boundary, are formed by the Yellow river. This river 
at the southwest, as incomes down from the north, turns almost at 
right-angles, and Hows to the east. The province is nearly in the 
form of a parallelogram, of which the river is one of the lono-est 

It contains 55,268 square miles, or 35,371,520 English acres 
supporting a population of 14,004,210, which gives 252 souls to 

VOL. XI. NO. XI. 78 


Topography of Shansi. 


each square mile. It is about the same size as Fukien and Chili, 
but larger than Kiangsu, Nganhwui, and Chekidng. 

i- AH If Taiyuen fu ; or the 
Department of Taiyuen, contains eleven districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 37° 53' 30" N., and long. 112° 30' 30" E., 
or 3° 55' 30" W. of Peking. 

1 Ip; iMj Yangkiu, 

2 # 

W A 

7 ^ 7]C Wanshui, 

8 jjip u Kf hien , 
9S| Lan hien, 

10 ^ !M King hien, 

11 ~pf #| Kolan chnu. 


3 ^ Taiku, 

4 ® ; k Yiitsz, 

•*> yk )M Taiyuen, 

6^1^ Kiauching, 

U- "T* PI ® Pingydng fu ; or the 
Department of Pingyang, contains eleven districts. 
Its chief city is in lat. 36° 6" N., and long. 111° 30' 30" E., or 4” 
55' 30" W. of Peking. 

1 fy Linfan, 

2 ft Kiuyu, 

3 |i-) Faushan, 

4 J| feS Yield ng, 

5 IHJp Siangling, 

7 ife Hungtung, 

8 & \% Ngdhyang, 

9 Y/t Fansi, 

10 4’li Hiangnin g, 

11 ^ Mj Ki chau. 

6 js. Taiping, 

III. j'l'l Jff Puchau fu; or the 
Department of Puchau, contains six districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 34° 54' N., and long. 100° 12' 30" E., or 
6' 13' 30" W. of Peking. 

4 M H Wants! uen, 

1 ?X 0 Yungtsi, 

2 fjg M Lintsin, 5 ^ H Yungho, 

3 jsj I'shi, 6 JH $1 Yiihiang. 

IV- $$ Lu-un fu; or the 

Department of Lu-an, contains seven districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 36° 7' 12" N., and long. 112° 57' 30" E., or 
3° 28' 30" W. of Peking. 


Topography of Shansi. 


1 -it *)p Change-Ill, 5 ^ Lfehing, 

2 si flf] Hukwan, 6 tji j^j y Tunliu, 

3 -j- Changtsz’, 7 ^ Jba Siangyuen. 

4 : g $ Luchin g, 

V. y^- 4'1'J J^|‘ Fanchau fu ; or the 
Department of Fanchau, contains eight district*. 

Its chief city is in lat. 37° 19' 12" N., and long. Ill 0 38' 30" E., 
or 4° 46' 30" W. of Peking. 

1 1% Fanyang, 

2 Hiaui, 

3 4 ft Kiaihiu, 

4 ^ Pingyau, 

5 Shilau, 

6 Lin hien, 

7 •j'j'j Yungning cAom, 

8 ^ f$]J Ninghiang. 

VI. jijl 'J]‘| Tsechau Ju ; or the 
Department of Tsechau, contains five districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 35° 30' N., and long. 112° 46' E., or 3° 
39' W. of Peking. 

1 JH j| Fungtai, 4 jfc Yangching, 

2 J|| Lingchuen, 5 ^ Kauping. 

^ JO ;K Tsinshui, 

VII. ^ ffij Tatung fu; or the 
Department of Tdtung, comprises ten districts. 

Its chief city is lat. 40° 5' 42" N., and long. 113° 13' E., or 3 J 
12' W. of Peking. 

1 ^ [3 Tatung, 6 gg Lingkiu, 

2 H| Hwaijin, 7 jlj Shanyin, 

3 M Yingchau, 8 % ifi Yangkau, 

4 }jpL 'J“|*| Hwanyuen chau, 9 ^ $j| Tjenehin, 

5 H Kwangling, 10 ® Jj| jg§ Fungchin ring-. 

viii. ip S /ff Ningwu fu ; or the 
Department of Ningwu, contains four districts. 

Its chief city is nearly in lat. 39° 8' N., and long. 4° 10' W, of 



Topography of Shansi. 



1 -'t- 3^ Ningwu, 3 fig || Pienkwan, 

2 i$L Shinchf, 4 jfe Wnchai. 

IX. j)5j] ^ Sdhping fu ; or the 

Department of Sohping, contains five districts. 

Its chief city is nearly in lat. 40° 10' N., and long. 4° 10' W. of 


1 3i Yuyu, 4 ^ Ml Sohchau, 

2 -p 'fl Pinglu, 5 ^ fjl Ningyuen ting. 

3 ix. ^ Tsoyun, 

X. ‘j$l Ml Pingting chau ; or the 
Department of Pingting, comprises only two districts. 
Its chief city is nearly in lat. 37° 50' N., and long. 3° W. of Peking. 

1 If fl? Chauyang, 2 ^a. f!Jt Yii Men. 

XI. f/f Ml Hinchau; or the 
Department of Hin, contains only two districts. 

1 Tsingloh, 2 ^ ^ Tingsiang. 

XII. ^ Ml Tin chau; or the 
Department of Tai, contains three districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 39° 5' 30" N., and long. 3° 30' 30" W. of 


1 H S? Wutaf, 3 ill I Fanchf. 

2 jll^ !j!| Koh Men , 

XIII. ^ ^ Ml Paute chau; or the 
Department of Paute, contains only one district. 

Its chief city is in lat. 39° 4 44" N., and long. 5° 40' W. of Peking. 

1 JPf 1® Hokiu. 

XIV. M| Kiaichau; or the 
Department of Kiai, contains four districts. 

Its chief city is nearly in lat. 35° N., and long. 5° 40' W. of Peking. 

1 PI- Pinglu, 3 ^ g A'nyi, 

2 j)vj M Nuiching, .3 H Hia Men. 


Topography of Shansi. 

62 J 

XV. gp W Kiting chau ; or the 
Department of Kiang, contains five districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 35° 37' 32 " N., and long. 5° 15' W. of 


1 HfJ ^ Wanhf, 4 [ll Tsishan, 

2 Kiang hien, 5 Hotsin. 

3 Yuenkiu, 

XVI. y l‘|‘J Sie chau ; or the 
Department of Sie, contains three districts. 

Its chief city is in nearly lat. 36° 40' N., and long. 5° 30' W. of 


1 ^f) ^ Pu hien, 3 ^ :^}| Yungho. 

2 ft 9- Taning, 

XVII. HI Tsinchau; or the 
Department of Tsin, contains two districts. 

Its chief town is in nearly lat. 36° 32' N., and long. 3° 40' W. of 


1 ')0 )J$ Tsinyuen, 2 ^ Wuhiang. 

XVIII. yfjt j']‘| Lidu chau ; or the 
Department of Liau, contains only two districts. 

Its chief city is in lat. 37° 2' 50" N., and long. 3° 1' W. of Peking. 

1 ;fp ]|f[ Hoshun, 2 jjjt Yiishie. 

XIX. ^ j/f] Hoh chau ; or the 
Department of Hoh, contains only two districts. 

Its chief city is in lat 36° 35' N., and long. 4° 43' W. of Peking. 

1 ft Chauching, 2f ^ Lingshi. 

XX. % JH 31 Si Kweisui Tc'iu, shu Wu Ting, 
or the five districts belonging to the circuit 
(or department) of Kweisui. 

1 IS ft H Kweihwa thing ting, 

2 i^P ^v|v ppj IH Holinke’rh ting, 


Topography of Shansi. 


3 5 ^ |{j j|§ Tohketoh eking ting , 

4 'iff 'M Hi Tsingshuiho Zwtg-, 

Sahlahtsi £t7ig\ 

I. The department of Taiyuen is one of the largest in the pro- 
vince ; it occupies a central position, with regard to the north and 
south, and stretches eastward from the Yellow river, on the west, 
two thirds of the distance. On the north it is bounded by the de- 
partments of Paute and Ningwu ; on the northeast by Hin ; on the 
east by Pingting; on the southeast, by Liau ; on the south and south- 
west by Fanchau; and on the west by the province of Shensi. 
Several of the tributaries of the Wang and Fan rivers take their rise 
in this department, considerable parts of which are hilly and moun- 
tainous. It has an enterprising and numerous population. Its capi- 
tal city stands on the eastern bank of the river Fan, which affords 
an easy communication with the Yellow river. The magistrate of 
Yangkiu resides in the provincial city. The residence of the magis- 
trate of the district Taiyuen is in the city of that name, standing on 
the western bank of the river. The city Ki, the head of the district 
of that name, stands on the eastern bank of the river and near the 
borders of the department. To this place the ancient monarch Y^u 
early removed his residence, from Tanling where he was born. 

II. The department of Pingyang is in every respect second only 
to the provincial capital and the region of country over which it has 
jurisdiction. It stands on a plain, not far from the eastern bank of 
the river Fan. It is bounded, on the north by the departments of 
Sie Hoh, and Tsin ; on the east by Lii-an ; on the south, by Tse- 
chau and Kiang ; and on the west by Shensi. Several tributaries of 
the laro-e rivers have their sources in this department. Just below 
the city of Pingyang the river divides and forms an island, on which 
is built the chief city of the district of Siangling. 

HI The department of Puchau, forming the southwestern por- 
tion of the province, is bounded on the west by Shensi ; on the south 
by Honan ; on the east by the department of Kiai ; and on the north 
and northeast by Kiang. Its shape is nearly that of a parallelogram. 
The an<de made by the Yellow river, however, is not an exact right 
antde but an acute one, and the shape of the department varies ac- 
cordingly, the western boundary being one of the longest sides of the 
parallelogram. Puchau fu, literally translated, means the “ Flag- 
country department,” so named evidently from its producing an 
abundance of reeds and rushes. Its chief town stands near its ex- 

1842 . 

Topography of Shansi. 


treme southwestern corner, and is the residence of the magistrate of 
the district Yungtsi. Northward from this city stand the chief ones 
of the districts Lintsin, I'shi, Wanhi, Wantsiuen, and Yungho. South 
from these and east from Yungtsi is Yuhidng. 

IV. The department of Lii-an is in the southeastern part of the 
province, occupying the country in which the southern branches of 
the Chuchang jj=f) take their rise. It is bounded on the north, 
by the department of Tsin; on the east by that of Chdngte, in Ho- 
ndn; on the south by that of Tsechau ; and on the west by that of 
Pingyang. On one of our Chinese maps there is a low range of hills 
extending from the Yellow river almost up to the Great Wall, form- 
ing a part of the southern and eastern boundaries of the province. 
This ridge makes the eastern boundary of Lu-dn, and the river Chu- 
chdng flows through it, running eastward. The shape of this river, 
on the east side of the ridge, is like a bill-hook. On the outer bend 
of the river, are four branches nearly equidistant from each other. 
The country is hilly, but affords a good deal of arable ground ; and 
being well watered, uniformly yields plentiful harvests. 

V. The department of Fanchau stands on the western bank of 
the river Fan (or Fwen, as Du Halde calls it,) about midway be- 
tween the cities of Taiyuen and Pingyang. Two of its eight dis- 
tricts are on the east of the Fan ; the others are between the Fan 
and the Yellow rivers. The cliief city — if we may determine its site 
by the Chinese maps — stands on a plain some miles from the river. 
The general features of the country resemble those of the depart- 
ments of Taiyuen and Pingydrag.. 

VI. The department of Tsechau is situated on the south of those 

of Lu-dn and Pingyang, having the department of Kiang for its west- 
ern boundary, and the province of Hondo for its southern and east- 
ern. On these two last named sides, the long low ridge, above 
alluded to, forms the line of demarkation : it is called Taihing shdn 
(& ii|)’ which might be translated the High-way hill, or the 

hill which makes a high road. It i- watered by the Tsin and the 
Tan rivers. 

VII. The department of Tatung is bounded on the north and 
northwest by the country of the Chahdrs " on the east by the pro- 
vince of ChiM ; on the south by Chili and the department of Tdi 

and on the west by that of Sohping. It is a very mountain- 
ous region, having branches of the Great Wall on its northern and 
southern frontiers, and watered by the Sangkdu and its tributaries. 

VIII. The department of Ningwu lies on the south of the Great 


Topography of Shansi. 


Wall and east of the Yellow river, extending nearly half across the 
province from east to west. The names of its four districts, when 
translated, will perhaps in some measure indicate the character of 
the country. The first has the same name as the department, viz., 
“Quiet and martial;” the second is named the “Divine Pool;” the 
third, the “Inclined Pass;” the fourth, the “ Five Encampments.” 

IX. The department of S61iping lies due west from that of Ta- 
tung, between the two branches of the Great Wall; it embraces one 
district, Ningyuen ting, situated on the north side of the wall. Near 
its southern border is a small lake, called the “ Fountain of the 

X. The department of Pingting borders on Chill, having the 
extreme southern part of a spur of the Great Wall for its eastern 
boundary. On the north it is bounded by the department of T&i ; on 
the west by those of Hin and Taiyuen; and on the south by that of 
Liau. The department is small and mountainous, and two or three 
small streams of water take their rise in it. 

XI. The department of Hin is bounded by Ningwii on the north; 
by Tai on the east; and by Pingting and Taiyuen on the south and 
west. Its general features are like those of Pingting. 

XII. The department of Tai lies due north of Pingting, having 
a spur of the Wall above named on the east, and the southern branch 
of the Wall for its northern boundary. It is exceedingly mountainous. 
The river Hatoh, rising near the point where the spur leaves the 
main Wall, runs several miles westward nearly parallel with it, and 
then trending to the south, makes a broad sweep and Hows east- 
ward into the province of Chill, making on the south and southwest 
the line of demarkation between Tai and the departments of Ping- 
ting and Hin. 

XIII. The department of Paute, having but a single district, lies 
on the east of the Yellow river, between the departments of Ningw u 
and Taiyuen. A portion of the Great Wall here runs parallel with 
the Yellow river, close to its eastern margin. 

XIV. The department of Kiai stretches over a small region of 
country on the northern bank of the Yellow river, directly east of 
and contiguous to the department of Piichau, which it greatly resem- 
bles in its geographical features. 

XV. The department of Kiang includes a narrow belt of coun- 
try lying northerly and easterly from the departments of Piichau and 
Kiai, having a short portion of the Yellow river at the two extremes 
of the belt. 


Topography of Shansi. 


XVI. The department of Sie lies on the eastern bank of the 
Yellow river, between Fanchau on the north, and Pingy&ng on the 
south. It is hilly, and well watered by several small branches of 
the Yellow river. 

XVII. The department of Tsin is a narrow range of mountain- 
ous country, bounded on the north by Fanchau; on the east, by 
Liau ; on the southeast, by Lu-in ; on the south, by Pingy&ng ; and 
on the west, by Hoh. 

XVIII. The department of Liau is elevated and mountainous ; 
bounded on the north by Pingting ; on the east and south, by Chili 
and Honan provinces ; on the southwest, by Tsin.; and on the west-, 
by Taiyuen. 

XIX. The department of Hdh is a narrow portion of country 
lying on both sides of the river Fan, directly above the department of 

XX. The department (or circuit tdu ) of Kweisui contains 

five districts, all situated north of the Great Wall, and comprising the 
whole of the northern portion of the province. The prefect has his 
residence in the city of Kweihiod, which is distant to the northwest 
890 h from the provincial capital, and 1180 from Peking, nearly in 
lat. 40° 49' N., long. 4° 45' W. Southeast fram Kweihwi are the 
district of Ho-lin-ke-rh and Toh-ke-t6h. Further to the south and 
west is the district Tsingshui h6 ; and that of Sah-lah-tsi on the west. 

This province affords an instance of the changes that have taken 
place in the empire since the days of Du Halde. He makes only 
five cities (the heads of that number of departments) in the whole 
province : these are, in his own orthography, Tay-ywen-fu, Ping- 
yang-fu, Lu-ngan-fu, Fwen-chen-fu, and Tay-tong-fu. The depart- 
ment of Kweisui has been added since he wrote, and the others sub- 
divided so as to give nineteen where he found only five. 

The natural features of the country have doubtless changed but 
little, if at all. The Hw&ng h6 “ rolls down its golden sands,” quite 
as it used to do under other dynasties, changing its bed a little here 
and there, but keeping well within its bounds, so far at least as 
Shansi is concerned. The headwaters of the river Fan are near 
lat. 39° N., among the summits of the Kwantsin moun- 

tains; it flows nearly parallel with the Yellow river, till it reaches 
the chief city in the department of Kiang, where it turns and flows 
to the west, and unites its waters with those of the Hwang ho. The 
Sangkien (^ ^ or Sangkau) is the next largest river. The 
branches of these are numerous. The next, in the order the Clu- 




Journal of Occurrences. 


nese name them are the Tsin the Chang ; the Tsing 

chang ; the Hutoh j[]ji ; and the Sie There are only 

a few lakes, and those are small. One is called the Salt pool. 

The portions of the country exhibits great diversity, in its animal 
vegetable, and mineral productions. Animals, both tame and wild, 
are abundant. On the north are some of the emperor’s best hunting 
grounds. Grains of almost all kinds are plentiful. The grapes are 
perhaps the best that can be found in the empire. Iron and other 
minerals are produced in most of the northern parts of the province. 

The natural scenery is in many places exquisitely beautiful, rich, 
and varied. The climate, too, we may easily suppose is, as gener- 
ally represented by travelers, good, being quite free from those evils 
which infest the more level portions of the empire. 

Art. VII Journal of Occurrences : return of troops from the 
north ; division of the forces ; proclamation regarding the ntio 
ports ; government of Chusan ; visit of H. M. brig Serpctit to 
Formosa; popular feeling at Canton relating to foreigners. 
Hitherto the aspect of affairs consequent upon the peace, continues to 
promise well. The feelings of the people towards foreigners, in that part of 
the country where the war has caused them the most misery, is kindly, and 
in the new ports they seem to be looking forward to the commencement of 
a new intercourse with pleasure. The first instalment of the sum agreed 
upon in the treaty having been paid, the whole force retired to Chusan. A 
correspondent of the Friend of China states that 1930 men are to garrison 
Chusan, 980 to be placed on Kulangsu, and 1700 at Hongkong. Most of 
the troops and transports have returned to the latter place from the north, 
where also H. E. sir Hugh Gough arrived on the 26th inst. H. E. sir Henry 
Pottingcr visited Shanghai on his way to Chusan, where he issued the 
following PROCLAMATION. 

“Her Britannic majesty’s plenipotentiary, and chief superintendent of the 
trade of the trade of British subjects in China, deems it proper in consequence 
of applications having been lately made to him, to proclaim for general in- 
formation, that no British merchant vessel can be allowed to go to any of the 
ports (Canton excepted) that are to be opened in accordance with the last 
treaty, until the tariffs and scale of duties shall be fixed, and consular officers 
appointed ; and of which arrangements due notice will be published. In the 
meantime, the ports of Tinghai (Chusan) and that of Kulangsu (Amoy) are, 
as heretofore, open to all vessels wishing to visit them. 

God save the Queen. 

Dated on board the steam frigate Queen, in Chusan Harbor, this 14th 
day of November, 1842. (Signed) Henry Pottinger, 

Her majesty’s plenipotentiary and chief superintendent of trade in China. 

(True copy.) Charles E. Stewart, asst. sec. & treasurer. 


Journal of Occurrences. 


The government of Chusan if is said is to be partly military and partly 
civil, but the whole island is to be left completely under the control of the 
English. None of the details of this arrangement, nor of those pertaining - 
to the new ports, have yet been officially promulgated. 

The prisoners on Formosa, from the Nerbudda and Ann, not having been 
delivered up, capt. Chads dispatched H. M. brig Serpent from Amoy to 
receive them. We have been favored with the following account of this visit. 

“We started from Amoy on Saturday morning the 8th of October, ran 
over to the Pescadores by evening, lay to until the next morning, and in a 
short time were at anchor near several large junks, whose position directed 
us. Having obtained a pilot from one of them, we ran in abreast of the fort 
about four miles below the capital, and anchored in five fathoms, between 
two or three miles from the shore. The place where the fort is of which I 
speak is called A'nping r }f- Zji ; the name of the capital is Taiwan fu 
^ os y° u alread y know. Soon after coming to anchor, the first 

lieutenant was sent to the commander of the fort, the A'nping hie, to announce 
our arrival on a peaceful errand, and to inquire when the captain, who bore 
a letter from the English senior naval officer at Amoy to the Taiwan chin 
§§ jfff ^j||, (i. e. the protector of Taiwan, who is thehighest authority in the 
island) might have an interwiew with his excellency. Mr. Brown, the first 
lieut. had some difficulty in making his way over an extensive mud flat, 
which lay between the heach and the fort, and on reaching the spot, an in- 
ferior officer put his head out of a port hole, and inquired what he wanted. 
He told them he wanted first to be on a level with themselves, when he 
would deliver his message. A second came and told him they had not sent 
for him, and of course could not tell what business he had there. Refusing 
to say more until invited into the fort, the Anping hie came, and told him to 
enter. They received him in an open court, gave him a narrow bench to sit 
on, and treated him uncivilly. He told them what he came for, and they 
appointed the next morning at 11 a. m. to receive the letter of captain Nevill. 
The next day several of the officers and myself accompanied the captain. 
The shore is difficult of approach. We ran through breakers, and were 
pulled in flat boats and carried by the men over the mud. On arriving at the 
fort, where Mr. Brown was received, we were met by some officials wearing 
gold buttons, who led us outside of the fort, and through the streets of a village 
to the hall where their superiors were assembled. Here we were well re- 
ceived by a number of officers wearing light red, blue crystal, and white and 
gold buttons. They gave captain Nevill and Mr. Brown chairs, and wanted 
to put the fest of us off with benches, but this honor we declined, and held 
out until all obtained chairs. Akum acted as interpreter. After a few intro- 
ductory remarks, the letter was adduced ; it went around, and was return- 
ed, none daring open it, because it was directed to the Taiwan chin, and he 
was not present. Captain N.’s instructions were to deliver it personally if 
possible. This was the first point at issue. The captain pressed the nature 
of his instructions, and they the impracticability of following them under pre- 
sent circumstances. The Taiwan chin was at Taiwan fii. There was an im- 
mense mud flat in the way, so that he could not come to us, nor we go to 
him. They dispatched a letter to him to know his pleasure, and told us we 
had better return to our ship, and come again the next morning. Captain N. 
replied that we were in haste to accomplish the business, and preferred 
waiting on shore for the reply. At this time they were willing to receive 
the letter and forward it to the Taiwan chin ; but this was objected to in the 
hope of obtaining an audience with him. Tea and cakes were handed us, 
and they told us that apartments would be provided for us. The preparations 


Journal of Occurrences. 


were soon made, and we were conducted a long distance to a temple of the 
Queen of Heaven. Here we found three priests’ rooms with several naked 
bedsteads, for all of which only one large quilt could be mustered. Others with 
some difficulty were obtained, and with our cloaks and clothes, we managed 
to pass the night The dinner and breakfast were very inferior. The first 
consisted of Chinese messes in a few bowls, flavored with garlic, and scarcely 
tolerable. The rice was the only pure and good substance. Having ascer- 
tained before the next morning, that we did not despise fowls, ducks, pork, 
or eggs, they gave us a set-out of a chicken, a duck, a piece of pork, and 
some eggs, all but the latter, boiled to insipidity. 

“ After breakfast we sent Akum to request an audience, as we wished to 
dispatch business and return. He brought back an unsatisfactory answer. 
Their honors appeared to have lost their zeal in our business and cared very 
little about seeing us; whereupon we determined to march to the hall and 
send for them, which we accordingly did. The A'nping, hie and one or two 
others wearing blue buttons soon made their appearance, but the wind had 
changed. The former gentleman came in with all the inimitable airs of a 
Chinese dignitary of the old regime. He scarcely noticed us, and when spoken 
to, answered disdainfully. He condescended to tell us, that the Taiwan chin 
was not coming to meet us. We inquired whether we might go and deliver 
the letter to him. He answered, No, it would not be permitted. We then as 
our dernier resort, asked him whether he would receive the letter, and have it 
conveyed to his superior officer. He graciously replied, That he would have 
nothing to do with it He then gracefully turned up his nose at the whole 
affair, told Akum that the business for which we were taking so much trou- 
ble was a small affair, and was indulging in this strain, when I told captain 
N. what he was saying, and asked him, whether I had not better give him a 
little plain talk before we parted. I then went before him and told him that 
he was making very light of this matter, but that we considered the lives of 
our fellow-men very important, and that I begged him to tell us where the 
hundred and odd men were, of whom he made no account He was evidently 
alarmed and made no reply. The day before he told Akum unasked that 
they had been put to death, which we would not listen to. Now he was 
afraid to repeat what he had said ; contradicted himself, and prevaricated, 
and when hard pushed even said, He did not know. At capt. Nevill’s request 
I again asked him whether he would receive and forward the letter. He said, 
No ; I inquired whether captain Nevill could see the Taiwan chin, to which he 
made the same reply. I then asked whether the eleven prisoners would be 
delivered up to us. This met with the same negative. He said that the 
letter was informal, not having come through the governor of the province, 
and that it was their duty to hand over the prisoners to his excellency only. 
He added that the prisoners had already been sent to the northern part of 
the island, there to be embarked for Fuchau fii. This assertion we believed 
at the time to be false, and afterwards learned from the soldiers that it was 
so, and that they were still confined at Taiwan fu. As nothing could be 
gained by protracting the audience, we agreed to take our leave and return to 
the ship. Before going, I told the officers present, that we were not igno- 
rant of the part they had been acting; that they had deceived the emperor, 
in telling him, what they well knew to be false, viz. that these unfortunate 
men were English soldiers, whom they had conquered and seized, after hav- 
ing destroyed their ships. I took occasion to say to the military commander, 
whose cap was adorned with a red button, and peacock’s feather, that the honors 
he was then wearing he owed to the base imposition he had practiced upon 
his emperor. I did not let them know that we were acquainted with their 
having procured through their misrepresentations the death of so many of the 
Lascars, for this was too grave a subject to be treated here. The few saluta- 


Journal of Occurrences 

62 9 

ry truths dealt out to them in language adapted rather to their base conduct, 
than to their present unmerited ranks, had a marked and we hoped a happy 
effect at this time. On Wednesday the 12th, we returned to the ship, and 
arrived back at Amoy on Saturday morning.” 

Since the return of the Serpent to Amoy, she has been again to Formosa, 
and received on board the crew of the Herculaneum transport, who were 
treated very kindly by the Chinese. 

We copy the following rescript from the Friend of China, in which it ap- 
peared in both Chinese and English. It is to be hoped that H. I. M. is 
sincere in these concessions, and does not regard them as mere temporary 
expedients to avoid greater humiliations. 

On the 2d day of the 8th moon (Sept. 8th, 1842), the imperial will was receiv- 
ed as follows ; Kiying has sent up a dispatch concerning the settlement of 
affairs with the barbarians, the establishment of peace, and the affix of the im- 
perial seal. The various items of the treaty entered into, have also been sub- 
mitted to the imperial glance, having been assented to by the said commis- 
sioners. In this dispatch was likewise stated the confirmed desire of the English 
to have trade at Fuchau fit, to erect factories, and to dwell there with their 
families, to all which the imperial assent was given, on the third of Aug. Our 
commissioners themselves, requested gravest punishment [for the concessions to 
the English] but we acquit them of all guilt on the subject. 

As to the old debts of the hong-merchants, the foreigners will not dare to 
seek the interference of the officers of government. 

The English are to have nothing to say against the erection of our forts and 
citadels. — To these two last items the English have given their respectful assent. 
Each of the different points were drawn out in form, and I the emperor having 
given them thorough perusal adjudged them worthy of negotiation, but demand- 
ing the utmost care and the most judicious deliberation. 

At the various ports where the barbarians are to trade they are allowed to 
carry on their dealings indiscriminately with whomsoever of our merchants they 
please, and all debts contracted between them are to be paid by the respective 
parties without official interference. 

The money (the 21 millions,) is to be paid by annual instalments. It is a vast 
amount, and where is such a sum to come from to be given away ? Let Kiying 
alone be held responsible hereafter for arranging the matter and registering be- 
forehand the places which are to supply their respective quota of the fund, and 
memorialize the court accordingly. 

In the present dispatch it is stated that on 1st August, 1841, the said English 
nation had received money at the various cities. As to these cities where such 
money has been received, with the definite amount, and also the amount to be 
deducted, let clear investigations be instituted, and representations made to the 
Court in accordance therewith. 

The prisoners of each country to be unconditionally delivered up, that ex- 
traordinary benevolence may be manifested. The natives of the, Middle Kingdom, 
who have been in attendance upon the officers of the said English nation, are to 
be considered free from guilt for so doing ; and as peace has now been declared, 
the people of both nations are to be regarded as one mutual whole, no one again 
daring to proceed to bloodshed. Should any of our people in other matters offend 
against the laws, our nation alone is to take the management of their cases with- 
out the interference of the English nation. 

Hereafter there will be fixed duties at the five ports, and how is it that the 
said barbarians who have lived so long at Canton, are not fully aware of the cus- 
tom-house arrangements ? 

The merchants of the Middle Kingdom who carry on trade from the interior 
and pass through the custom-house, are to pay the usual dues. 

Our assent is given for the occupation of Tinghiu and KGHngsfi for a time 
until the money be paid; and let each of the five cpstom- houses be thrown 
open, let the ships pass out and let it be also understood that military occupation 
of the above places will not be allowed for a great length of time. 

Let each of the above items be definitely arranged by Kiying and colleagues 


Journal of Occurrences. 


with the barbarians, giving closest attention to the minutest particulars, that the 
treaty may be drawn up in the most clear and intelligible terms, preventing all 
after difficulties, and confusion of affairs. As the barbarians cannot understand 
us, let the services of interpreters be employed that they may be satisfied. The 
whole of the barbarian vessels are to leave the Great river about Sept. 14th ; 
and let the matter be adjusted with the speediest dispatch that quiet may be 
restored to the imperial bosom, and let these our commands be sent by the most 
rapid express, that they may be made known. Respect this. 

At Canton, no small excitement has been caused by certain gentry, who 
have made use of a rumor that the English were to have lands granted them 
for dwellings on Honan, opposite the foreign factories, to irritate the people 
against them. The following spirited manifesto was published by the gentry 
during the present month as the expression of their opinion. 

Wo have been reverently consulting upon the empire — a vast and undivided 
whole 1 How can we permit it to be severed in order to give it to others 1 Yet 
we, the rustic people, can learn to practice a rude loyalty ; we too know to destroy 
the banditti and thus requite his majesty. Our Great Pure dynasty has cared 
for this country for more than two hundred years, during which a succession of 
distinguished monarchs, sage succeeding sage, has reigned ; and wc who eat the 
herb of the field, and tread the soil, have for ages drank in the dew of imperial 
goodness, and been imbued with its benevolence. The people in wilds far remote 
beyond our influence, have also felt this goodness, comparable to the heavens 
for height, and been upheld by this bounty, like the earth for thickness. Where- 
fore peace being now settled in the country, ships of all lands come, distant 
though they be from this for many a myriad of miles ; and of all the foreigners 
on the south and west there is not one but what enjoys the highest peace and 
contentment, and entertains the profoundest respect and submission. 

But there is that English nation; whose ruler is now a woman and then a man, 
its people at one time like birds and then like beasts, with dispositions more 
fierce and furious than the tiger or wolf, and hearts more greedy than the snake 
or hog, — this people has ever stealthily devoured all the southern barbarians, 
and like the demon of the night they now suddenly exalt themselves. During the 
reigns of Kicnlung and Kicking, these English barbarians humbly besought 
entrance and permission to make a present ; they also presumptuously requested 
to have Chusan, but those divine personages clearly perceiving their traitorous 
designs, gave them a peremptory refusal. From that time, linking themselves 
in with traitorous traders, they have privily dwell at Macao, trading largely 
in opium, and poisoning our brave people. They have ruined lives, — how 
many millions none can tell; and wasted property — how many thousands of 
millions who can guess ! They have dared again and again to murder Chinese, 
and have secreted the murderers, whom they refused to deliver up, at which the 
hearts of all men grieved and their heads ached. Thus it has been that for many 
years past, the English by their privily watching for opportunities in the country 
have gradually brought things to the present pass. 

In 1838, our great emperor having fully learned all the crimes of the English 
and the poisonous effects of opium, quickly wished to restore the good condition 
of the country and compassionate the people. In consequence of the memorial of 
Hwdng Tsiohsz’, and in accordance to his request, ho specially deputed the 
public minded, upright, and clear headed minister Lin Tsesii, to act as his im- 
perial commissioner with plenipotentiary powers, and go to Canton to examine 
and regulate. He came and took all the stored-up opium and stopped the trade, 
in order to cleanse the stream and cut off the fountain ; kindness was mixed 
with his severity, and virtue was evident in his laws, yet still the English repent- 
ed not of their errors, and as the climax of their contumacy called troops to their 
aid. The censor Hwdng, by advising peace, threw down the barriers, and bands of 
audacious robbers, willingly did all kinds of disreputable and villainous deeds. 
During the past three years, these rebels, depending upon their stout ships and 
effective cannon, from Canton went to Fukien, and thence to Chekiang and on 
to Kidngsfi, seizing our territory, destroying our civil and military authorities, 
ravishing our women, capturing our property, and bringing upon the inhabitants 
of these four provinces intolerable miseries. His imperial majesty was troubled 


Journal of Occurrences. 


and afflicted, and this added to his grief and anxiety. If you wish to purify their 
crimes, all the fuel in the empiro will not suffice, nor would the vast ocean be 
enough to wash out our resentment. Gods and men are alike filled with indigna- 
tion, and heaven and ea- th cannot permit them to remain. 

Recently, all those who have had the management of affairs in Kidngnkn have 
been imitating those who were in Canton, and at the gates of the city they have will- 
ingly made an agreement, peeling off the fat of the people to the tune of hundreds 
of myriads, and all to save the precious lives of one or two useless officers; in doing 
which they have exactly verified what chancellor Kin Yinglin had before memoria- 
lized. Now these English rebels are barbarians dwelling in a petty island beyond 
our domains; yet their coming throws myriads of miles of country into turmoil, 
while their numbers do not exceed a few myriads. What can be easier than for 
our celestial dynasty, to exert its fullness of power, and exterminate these con- 
temptible sea-going imps, just as the blast bends the pliant bamboo! But our 
highest officers and ministers cherish their precious lives, and civil and military men 
both dread a dog as they would a tiger; regardless of the enemies of their country 
or the griefs of the people, they have actually sundered the empire and granted its 
wealth ; acts more flagitious these than those of the traitors in the days of the 
Southern Sung dynasty, and the reasons for which are wholly beyond our com- 
prehension. These English barbarians arc at bottom without ability, and yet we 
have all along seen in the memorials that officers exalt and dilate upon their 
prowess and obstinacy ; our people are courageous and enthusiastic, but the officers 
on the contrary say that they are dispirited and scattered : this is for no other 
reason than to coerce our prince to make peace, and then they will luckily avoid 
the penalty due for “ deceiving the prince and betraying the country.” Do you 
doubt? Then look at the memorial of chancellor Kin Yinglin which says, 
“They take the occasion of war to seek for self-aggrandizement;” every word of 
which directly points at such conduct as this. 

We have recently read in his majesty’s lucid mandate, that “There is no other 
way, and what is requested must be granted,” and that, “We have conferred ex- 
traordinary powers upon the ministers, and they have done nothing but deceive us.” 
Looking up we perceive his majesty’s clear discrimination and divine perception, 
and that he is fully aware of the imbecility of his ministers ; he remembers too the 
loyal anger of his people. He has accordingly now temporarily settled all the pre- 
sent difficulties, but it is that, having matured his plans, he may hereafter mani- 
fest his indignation, and show to the empire that it had not fathomed the divine 
awe-inspiring counsels. 

The dispositions of these rebellious English is like that of the dog or sheep, 
whose desires can never be satisfied ; and therefore we need not inquire whether 
the peace now made be real or pretended. Remember that when they last year 
made disturbance at Canton, they seized the Square fort, and thereupon exhibited 
their audacity, everywhere plundering and ravishing. If it had not been that the 
patriotic inhabitants dwelling in Hwditsing and other hamlets, and those in 
Shingping, had not killed their leader and destroyed their devilish soldiers, they 
would have scrupled at nothing, taking and pillaging the city and then firing it, 
in order to gratify their vengeance and their greediness : can we imagine that for 
the paltry sum of six millions of dollars they would, as they did, have raised the 
siege and retired ? How to be regretted! That when the fish was in the frying- 
pan, the Kwdngchau ffi should come and pull away the firewood, let loose the 
tiger to return to the mountains, and disarm the people’s indignation. Let- 
ting the enemy thus escape on one occasion has successively brought misery upon 
many provinces : whenever we speak of it, it wounds the heart, and causes the 
tears to flows. 

Last year, when the treaty of peace was made, it was agreed that the English 
should withdrew from beyond Lankeet, that they should give back the forts near 
there, and dwell temporarily at Hongkong, and that thenceforth all military ope- 
rations were for ever to cease : who would have supposed that before the time 
stipulated had passed away, they would have turned their backs upon this agree, 
ment, taken violent possession of the forts at the Bogue with their “ wooden dra. 
gons” (i. e. ships of war), — and when they came upon the gates of the City of 
Rams with their powerful forces, who was there to oppose them? During these 
three years, we have not been able to restore things as at first, and their deceptive 

Journal of Occurrences. 

craftiness then confined to these regions lias rapidly extended itself to Ki&ngnin. 
But our high and mighty emperor, preeminently intelligent and discerning {lit. 
grasping the golden mirror and holding the geinmeous balances), consents to de- 
mean himself to adopt soothing counsels of peace, and therefore submissively ac- 
cords with the decrees of heaven. Having a suspicion that these outlandish people 
intended to inoroach upon 11s, -fn/has secretly arranged all things. We have res- 
pectfully read through all his majesty’s mandates, and they are as clearsighted as 
the sun and moon ; but those who now manage affairs, are like one who supposing 
the raging fire to be under, puts himself as much at ease as swallows in a court ; 
but who, if Ihe calamity suddenly reappears, would be as defenseless as a gram- 
pus in a fislnnarket. The law adjudges the penalty of death for betraying the 
country, but how can even death atone for their crimes ? Those persons who have 
been handed down to succeeding ages with honor, and those whose memories 
have been execrated, arc but a little apart on the page of righteous history; let 
our rulers but remember this, and we think they also must exert themselves to 
recover their characters. Wc people have had our day in times of great peace, 
and this age is one of abundant prosperity ; scholars are devising bow to recom- 
pense the kindness of the government, nor can husbandmen think of forgetting 
his majesty’s exertions for them. Our indignation was early excited to join battle 
with the enemy, and we then all urged one another to the firmest loyalty. 

Wc have heard the English intend to come into Pearl river and make a settlement; 
this will not, however, stop at Chinese and foreigners merely dwelling together, 
for men and beasts cannot endure each other ; it will be like opening the door and 
bowing in the thief, or setting the gate ajar and letting the wolf in. While they 
were kept outside, there were many traitors within ; how much more, when they 
incroach even to our bedsides, will our troubles be augmented? We cannot help 
fearing it will eventuate in something strange, which words will be insuffi- 
cient fully to express. If the rulers of other states wish to imitate the English, 
with what can their demands be waived ? Consequently, the unreasonable de- 
mands of the English are going to bring great calamity upon the people, and deep 
sorrow to the country. If we do not permit them to dwell with us under the 
same heaven, our spirits will feel no shame ; but if we willingly consent to live 
with them, we may in truth be deemed insensate. 

We have reverently read in the imperial mandate, “ There must indeed be 
some persons among the people of extraordinary wisdom or bravery, who can stir 
them up to loyalty and ’patriotism, or unite them in self-defense; some who can 
assist the government and army to recover the cities, or else defend passes of im- 
portance against the robbers ; some who can attack and burn their vessels, or 
seize and bring the heads of their doltish leaders ; or else some with divine pre- 
science and wisdom, who can disclose all their silly counsels, and get to them- 
selves a name of surpassing merit and ability, and receive the highest rewards 
We can confer, &c., &c.” We, the people having received the imperial words, 
have united ourselves together as troops, and practice the plan of joining hamlets 
and villages, till we have upwards of a million of troops, whom we have provisioned 
according to the scale of estimating the produce of respective farms; and now we 
are fully ready and quite at ease as to the result. If nothing calls us, then each 
one will return to his own occupation ; but if the summons come, joining our 
strength in force, we will incite each other to effort ; our brave sons and brothers 
are all animated to deeds of arms, and even those who are finical and delicate as 
jewels, our wives and daughters, have learned to discourse of arms. 

At first, alas, those who guarded the passes were at ease and careless, and the 
robbers came unbidden and undesired ; but now [if they come], we have only 
zealously to appoint each other to stations, and suppress the rising of the waves to 
the stillest calm (i. e. to exterminate them). When the golden pool is fully restor- 
ed to peace, and his majesty’s anxiety for the south relieved; when leviathan has 
been driven away, then will our anger, comparable to the broad ocean and high 
heavens, be pacified. 

Ah .' We here bind ourselves to vengeance, and express these our sincere 
intentions in order to exhibit great principles; and also to manifest heaven’s 
retribution and rejoice men’s hearts, we now issue this patriotic declaration. The 
high gods clearly behold : do not lose your first resolution. 

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